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Basic science and research
Sex or gender differences in treatment outcomes of sepsis and septic shock
Seung Yeon Min, Ho Jin Yong, Dohhyung Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(2):207-213.   Published online May 24, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2024.00591
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Gender disparities in intensive care unit (ICU) treatment approaches and outcomes are evident. However, clinicians often pay little attention to the importance of biological sex and sociocultural gender in their treatment courses. Previous studies have reported that differences between sexes or genders can significantly affect the manifestation of diseases, diagnosis, clinicians' treatment decisions, scope of treatment, and treatment outcomes in the intensive care field. In addition, numerous reports have suggested that immunomodulatory effects of sex hormones and differences in gene expression from X chromosomes between genders might play a significant role in treatment outcomes of various diseases. However, results from clinical studies are conflicting. Recently, the need for customized treatment based on physical, physiological, and genetic differences between females and males and sociocultural characteristics of society have been increasingly emphasized. However, interest in and research into this field are remarkably lacking in Asian countries, including South Korea. Through this review, we hope to enhance our awareness of the importance of sex and gender in intensive care treatment and research by briefly summarizing several principal issues, mainly focusing on sex and sex hormone-based outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU with sepsis and septic shock.
Original Articles
Nutrition
Association of malnutrition status with 30-day mortality in patients with sepsis using objective nutritional indices: a multicenter retrospective study in South Korea
Moon Seong Baek, Young Suk Kwon, Sang Soo Kang, Daechul Shim, Youngsang Yoon, Jong Ho Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(1):127-137.   Published online February 20, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01613
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) have emerged as important nutritional indices because they provide an objective assessment based on data. We aimed to investigate how these nutritional indices relate to outcomes in patients with sepsis. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively at five hospitals for patients aged ≥18 years receiving treatment for sepsis between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2021. Serum albumin and total cholesterol concentrations, and peripheral lymphocytes were used to calculate the CONUT score and PNI. To identify predictors correlated with 30-day mortality, analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The 30-day mortality rate among 9,763 patients was 15.8% (n=1,546). The median CONUT score was 5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3–7) and the median PNI score was 39.6 (IQR, 33.846.4). Higher 30-day mortality rates were associated with individuals with moderate (CONUT score: 5–8; PNI: 35–38) or severe (CONUT: 9–12; PNI: <35) malnutrition compared with those with no malnutrition (CONUT: 0–1; PNI: >38). With CONUT scores, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with moderate malnutrition was 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–1.87; P<0.001); for severe, HR=2.42 (95% CI, 1.95–3.02; P<0.001). With PNI scores, the HR for moderate malnutrition was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.09–1.53; P=0.003); for severe, HR=1.88 (95% CI, 1.67–2.12; P<0.001). Conclusions: The nutritional indices CONUT score and PNI showed significant associations with mortality of sepsis patients within 30 days.
Nephrology
Radiomic analysis of abdominal organs during sepsis of digestive origin in a French intensive care unit
Louis Boutin, Louis Morisson, Florence Riché, Romain Barthélémy, Alexandre Mebazaa, Philippe Soyer, Benoit Gallix, Anthony Dohan, Benjamin G Chousterman
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(3):343-352.   Published online August 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00136
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Sepsis is a severe and common cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Radiomic analysis (RA) may predict organ failure and patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess a model of RA and to evaluate its performance in predicting in-ICU mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI) during abdominal sepsis.
Methods
This single-center, retrospective study included patients admitted to the ICU for abdominal sepsis. To predict in-ICU mortality or AKI, elastic net regularized logistic regression and the random forest algorithm were used in a five-fold cross-validation set repeated 10 times.
Results
Fifty-five patients were included. In-ICU mortality was 25.5%, and 76.4% of patients developed AKI. To predict in-ICU mortality, elastic net and random forest models, respectively, achieved areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.54) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.46–0.57) and were not improved combined with Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II. To predict AKI with RA, the AUC was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.66–0.77) for elastic net and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64–0.74) for random forest, and these were improved combined with SAPS II, respectively; AUC of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91–0.96) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.80) for elastic net and random forest, respectively.
Conclusions
This study suggests that RA has poor predictive performance for in-ICU mortality but good predictive performance for AKI in patients with abdominal sepsis. A secondary validation cohort is needed to confirm these results and the assessed model.
Surgery
Adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin administration on postoperative critically ill patients with secondary peritonitis: a retrospective study
Young Un Choi, Jun Gi Kim, Ji Young Jang, Tae Hwa Go, Kwangmin Kim, Keum Seok Bae, Hongjin Shim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):21-30.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01515
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(2):250
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in sepsis patients from bowel perforation is still debatable. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of IVIG as an adjuvant therapy after source control. This study aimed to analyze the effect of IVIG in critically ill patients who underwent surgery due to secondary peritonitis.
Methods
In total, 646 medical records of surgical patients who were treated for secondary peritonitis were retrospectively analyzed. IVIG use, initial clinical data, and changes in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score over the 7-day admission in the intensive care unit for sepsis check, base excess, and delta neutrophil index (DNI) were analyzed. Mortalities and periodic profiles were assessed. Propensity scoring matching as comparative analysis was performed in the IVIG group and non-IVIG group.
Results
General characteristics were not different between the two groups. The survival curve did not show a significantly reduced mortality in the IVIG. Moreover, the IVIG group did not have a lower risk ratio for mortality than the non-IVIG group. However, when the DNI were compared during the first 7 days, the reduction rate in the IVIG group was statistically faster than in the non-IVIG group (P<0.01).
Conclusions
The use of IVIG was significantly associated with faster decrease in DNI which means faster reduction of inflammation. Since the immune system is rapidly activated, the additional use of IVIG after source control surgery in abdominal sepsis patients, especially those with immunocompromised patients can be considered. However, furthermore clinical studies are needed.

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  • USING INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN A PATIENT WITH SEPTIC SHOCK AND MULTIPLE COMORBIDITIES: A REVIEW BASED ON A CLINICAL CASE
    Nataliya Matolynets, Jacek Rolinski, Khrystyna Lishchuk-Yakymovych, Yaroslav Tolstyak
    Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pediatrics
Characteristics and timing of mortality in children dying in pediatric intensive care: a 5-year experience
Edin Botan, Emrah Gün, Emine Kübra Şden, Cansu Yöndem, Anar Gurbanov, Burak Balaban, Fevzi Kahveci, Hasan Özen, Hacer Uçmak, Ali Genco Gençay, Tanil Kendirli
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):644-653.   Published online November 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00395
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), where children with critical illnesses are treated, require considerable manpower and technological infrastructure in order to keep children alive and free from sequelae. Methods: In this retrospective comparative cohort study, hospital records of patients aged 1 month to 18 years who died in the study PICU between January 2015 and December 2019 were reviewed. Results: A total of 2,781 critically ill children were admitted to the PICU. The mean±standard deviation age of 254 nonsurvivors was 64.34±69.48 months. The mean PICU length of stay was 17 days (range, 1–205 days), with 40 children dying early (<1 day of PICU admission). The majority of nonsurvivors (83.9%) had comorbid illnesses. Children with early mortality were more likely to have neurological findings (62.5%), hypotension (82.5%), oliguria (47.5%), acidosis (92.5%), coagulopathy (30.0%), and cardiac arrest (45.0%) and less likely to have terminal illnesses (52.5%) and chronic illnesses (75.6%). Children who died early had a higher mean age (81.8 months) and Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score (37). In children who died early, the first three signs during ICU admission were hypoglycemia in 68.5%, neurological symptoms in 43.5%, and acidosis in 78.3%. Sixty-seven patients needed continuous renal replacement therapy, 51 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and 10 underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: We found that rates of neurological findings, hypotension, oliguria, acidosis, coagulation disorder, and cardiac arrest and PRISM III scores were higher in children who died early compared to those who died later.

Citations

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  • Descriptive and Clinical Characteristics of Nonsurvivors in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Turkey: 6 Years of Experience
    Zeynep Karakaya, Merve Boyraz, Seyma Koksal Atis, Servet Yuce, Muhterem Duyu
    Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between mortality and critical events within 48 hours of transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit
    Huan Liang, Kyle A. Carey, Priti Jani, Emily R. Gilbert, Majid Afshar, L. Nelson Sanchez-Pinto, Matthew M. Churpek, Anoop Mayampurath
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Infection
The prognostic impact of rheumatoid arthritis in sepsis: a population-based analysis
Lavi Oud, John Garza
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):533-542.   Published online October 6, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00787
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of sepsis and higher infection-related mortality compared to the general population. However, the evidence on the prognostic impact of RA in sepsis has been inconclusive. We aimed to estimate the population-level association of RA with short-term mortality in sepsis. Methods: We used statewide data to identify hospitalizations aged ≥18 years in Texas with sepsis, with and without RA during 2014–2017. Hierarchical logistic models with propensity adjustment (primary model), propensity score matching, and multivariable logistic regression without propensity adjustment were used to estimate the association of RA with short-term mortality among sepsis hospitalizations. Results: Among 283,025 sepsis hospitalizations, 7,689 (2.7%) had RA. Compared to sepsis hospitalizations without RA, those with RA were older (aged ≥65 years, 63.9% vs. 56.4%) and had higher burden of comorbidities (mean Deyo comorbidity index, 3.2 vs. 2.7). Short-term mortality of sepsis hospitalizations with and without RA was 26.8% vs. 31.4%. Following adjustment for confounders, short-term mortality was lower among RA patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.910; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.856–0.967), with similar findings on alternative models. On sensitivity analyses, short-term mortality was lower in RA patients among sepsis hospitalizations aged ≥65 years and those with septic shock, but not among those admitted to intensive care unit (ICU; aOR, 0.990; 95% CI, 0.909–1.079). Conclusions: RA was associated, unexpectedly, with lower short-term mortality in septic patients. However, this “protective” association was driven by those patients without ICU admission. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to examine the underlying mechanisms.

Citations

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  • Genetic associations between autoimmune diseases and the risks of severe sepsis and 28-day mortality: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study
    Xin Tie, Yanjie Zhao, Jing Su, Xing Liu, Tongjuan Zou, Wanhong Yin
    Frontiers in Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Infection
Validation of presepsin measurement for mortality prediction of sepsis: a preliminary study
Seung Min Baik, Jin Park, Tae Yoon Kim, Se Hong Choi, Kyung Sook Hong
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):527-532.   Published online August 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00150
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Sepsis and septic shock remain the leading causes of death in critically ill patients worldwide. Various biomarkers are available to determine the prognosis and therapeutic effects of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of presepsin as a sepsis biomarker. Methods: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with major or minor diagnosis of sepsis were categorized into survival and non-survival groups. The white blood cell count and serum C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and presepsin levels were measured in all patients. Results: The study included 40 patients (survival group, 32; non-survival group, 8; mortality rate, 20%). The maximum serum presepsin levels measured during intensive care unit admission were significantly higher in the non-survival group (median [interquartile range]: 4,205.5 pg/ml [1,155.8–10,094.0] vs. 741.5 pg/ml [520.0–1,317.5], P<0.05). No statistically significant intergroup differences were observed in the maximum, minimum, and mean values of the white blood cell count, as well as serum C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve for presepsin as a predictor of sepsis mortality was 0.764. At a cut-off value of 1,898.5 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of presepsin for prediction of sepsis-induced mortality were 75.0% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of sepsis and prediction of sepsis-induced mortality are important for prompt initiation of treatment. Presepsin may serve as an effective biomarker for prediction of sepsis-induced mortality and for evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

Citations

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  • The Potential Role of Presepsin in Predicting Severe Infection in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers
    Eun Yeong Ha, Il Rae Park, Seung Min Chung, Young Nam Roh, Chul Hyun Park, Tae-Gon Kim, Woong Kim, Jun Sung Moon
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(8): 2311.     CrossRef
  • Combined estimation of presepsin and gelsolin might improve the diagnostic validity of clinical scoring to predict and stratify sepsis in non-sepsis surgical ICU patient
    Hany A. Shehab, Ahmed M Eid, Yehya Shahin Dabour
    Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia.2024; 40(1): 262.     CrossRef
Infection
Ability of a modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score to predict mortality among sepsis patients in a resource-limited setting
Bodin Khwannimit, Rungsun Bhurayanontachai, Veerapong Vattanavanit
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):363-371.   Published online August 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01627
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Copyright © 2022 The Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of Creative Attributions Non- Commercial License (https://creativecommons. org/li-censes/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. https://www.accjournal.org 363 INTRODUCTION Sepsis is a life-threatening condition and constitutes major health care problems around the world [1,2]. Sepsis was associated with nearly 20% of all global deaths, and the majority of sepsis cases occurred in low- or middle-income countries [1]. In 2017, the World Health Organization recommended actions to reduce the global burden of sepsis [2]. Sepsis has been defined as acute life-threatening organ dysfunction due to dysregulation of host responses to Background: Some variables of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are not routinely measured in sepsis patients, especially in countries with limited resources. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the modified SOFA (mSOFA) and compared its ability to predict mortality in sepsis patients to that of the original SOFA score.
Methods
Sepsis patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit of Songklanagarind Hospital between 2011 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality.
Results
A total of 1,522 sepsis patients were enrolled. The mean SOFA and mSOFA scores were 9.7±4.3 and 8.8±3.9, respectively. The discrimination of the mSOFA score was significantly higher than that of the SOFA score for all-cause in-hospital mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.891 [95% confidence interval, 0.875–0.907] vs. 0.879 [0.862–0.896]; P<0.001), all-cause intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (0.880 [0.863–0.898] vs. 0.871 [0.853–0.889], P=0.01) and all-cause 28-day mortality (0.887 [0.871–0.904] vs. 0.874 [0.856–0.892], P<0.001). The ability of mSOFA score to predict all-cause in-hospital and 28-day mortality was higher than that of the SOFA score within the subgroups of sepsis according to age, sepsis severity and serum lactate levels. The mSOFA score was demonstrated to have a performance similar to the original SOFA score regarding the prediction of mortality in sepsis patients with cirrhosis or hepatic dysfunction.
Conclusions
The mSOFA score was a good alternative to the original SOFA core in predicting mortality among sepsis patients admitted to the ICU.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • SOFA in sepsis: with or without GCS
    Lu Wang, Xudong Ma, Guanghua Zhou, Sifa Gao, Wei Pan, Jieqing Chen, Longxiang Su, Huaiwu He, Yun Long, Zhi Yin, Ting Shu, Xiang Zhou, Yongjun Liu, Yan Kang, Jing Yan, Erzhen Chen, Bin Xiong, Bingyu Qin, Kejian Qian, Wei Fang, Mingyan Zhao, Xiaochun Ma, Xi
    European Journal of Medical Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of prior antiplatelet and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use on mortality in patients undergoing abdominal surgery for abdominal sepsis
    Se Hun Kim, Ki Hoon Kim
    Surgery.2023; 174(3): 611.     CrossRef
Review Article
Infection
Oxygen therapy for sepsis and prevention of complications
Hayk Minasyan
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(2):137-150.   Published online March 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01200
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Patients with sepsis have a wide range of respiratory disorders that can be treated with oxygen therapy. Experimental data in animal sepsis models show that oxygen therapy significantly increases survival, while clinical data on the use of different oxygen therapy protocols are ambiguous. Oxygen therapy, especially hyperbaric oxygenation, in patients with sepsis can aggravate existing oxidative stress and contribute to the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The purpose of this article is to compare experimental and clinical data on oxygen therapy in animals and humans, to discuss factors that can influence the results of oxygen therapy for sepsis treatment in humans, and to provide some recommendations for reducing oxidative stress and preventing disseminated intravascular coagulation during oxygen therapy.

Citations

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  • Sequential respiratory support in septic patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy: A study based on MIMIC-III database
    Chunxia Wang, Jianli Zheng, Yilin Zhao, Tiantian Liu, Yucai Zhang
    Heliyon.2024; 10(6): e27563.     CrossRef
  • Personalized medicine targeting different ARDS phenotypes: The future of pharmacotherapy for ARDS?
    Florian Blanchard, Arthur James, Mona Assefi, Natacha Kapandji, Jean-Michel Constantin
    Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine.2023; 17(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • Current data regarding homeostasis of tissues oxygenation in pathophysiological and therapeutic circumstances
    Constantin Munteanu, Mihaela Antonina Călin, Dragoș Manea, Cristina Popescu, Mădălina Iliescu, Elena Valentina Ionescu, Liliana Stanciu, Mihaela Minea, Carmen Oprea, Doinița Oprea, Mariana Rotariu, Gelu Onose
    Balneo and PRM Research Journal.2023; 14(Vol.14, no): 565.     CrossRef
  • Current data regarding homeostasis of tissues oxygenation in pathophysiological and therapeutic circumstances
    Constantin Munteanu, Mihaela Antonina Călin, Dragoș Manea, Cristina Popescu, Mădălina Iliescu, Elena Valentina Ionescu, Liliana Stanciu, Mihaela Minea, Carmen Oprea, Doinița Oprea, Mariana Rotariu, Gelu Onose
    Balneo and PRM Research Journal.2023; 14(Vol.14, no): 565.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Infection
Incidence and risk factors associated with early death in patients with emergency department septic shock
Matthew S. Reaven, Nigel L. Rozario, Maggie S. J. McCarter, Alan C. Heffner
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(2):193-201.   Published online February 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00857
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Limited research has explored early mortality among patients presenting with septic shock. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with early death following emergency department (ED) presentation of septic shock.
Methods
A prospective registry of patients enrolled in an ED septic shock clinical pathway was used to identify patients. Patients were compared across demographic, comorbid, clinical, and treatment variables by death within 72 hours of ED presentation.
Results
Among the sample of 2,414 patients, overall hospital mortality was 20.6%. Among patients who died in the hospital, mean and median time from ED presentation to death were 4.96 days and 2.28 days, respectively. Death at 24, 48, and 72 hours occurred in 5.5%, 9.5%, and 11.5% of patients, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the following factors were independently associated with early mortality: age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.05), malignancy (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.11–2.11), pneumonia (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02–1.88), urinary tract infection (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44–0.89), first shock index (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.27–2.70), early vasopressor use (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.60–2.92), initial international normalized ratio (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07–1.27), initial albumin (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44–0.69), and first serum lactate (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.16–1.26).
Conclusions
Adult septic shock patients experience a high rate of early mortality within 72 hours of ED arrival. Recognizable clinical factors may aid the identification of patients at risk of early death.

Citations

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  • Early Prediction of Mortality for Septic Patients Visiting Emergency Room Based on Explainable Machine Learning: A Real-World Multicenter Study
    Sang Won Park, Na Young Yeo, Seonguk Kang, Taejun Ha, Tae-Hoon Kim, DooHee Lee, Dowon Kim, Seheon Choi, Minkyu Kim, DongHoon Lee, DoHyeon Kim, Woo Jin Kim, Seung-Joon Lee, Yeon-Jeong Heo, Da Hye Moon, Seon-Sook Han, Yoon Kim, Hyun-Soo Choi, Dong Kyu Oh, S
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Red cell distribution width and in‐hospital mortality in septic shock: A public database research
    Qiong Ding, Yingjie Su, Changluo Li, Ning Ding
    International Journal of Laboratory Hematology.2022; 44(5): 861.     CrossRef
Infection
Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy is associated with higher mortality rates in patients with sepsis
Balaram Krishna J Hanumanthu, Anika Sasidharan Nair, Adarsh Katamreddy, Jason S Gilbert, Jee Young You, Obiageli Lynda Offor, Ankit Kushwaha, Ankita Krishnan, Marzio Napolitano, Leonidas Palaidimos, Joaquin Morante, Seema S. Tekwani, Suchita Mehta, Aanchal Gupta, Harmeen Goraya, Mengyang Sun, Robert T. Faillace, Perminder Gulani
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(3):215-222.   Published online July 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00234
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Patients with sepsis are at risk for developing sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC). Previous studies offer inconsistent results regarding the association of SIC and mortality. This study sought to assess whether SIC is linked to mortality in patients with sepsis and to evaluate predictors of the development of SIC.
Methods
In this retrospective study, patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit with a diagnosis of sepsis in the absence of acute coronary syndrome were included. SIC was identified using transthoracic echo and was defined by a new onset decline in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤50%, or ≥10% decline in LVEF compared to baseline in patients with a history of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed using the R software program.
Results
Of the 359 patients in the final analysis, 19 (5.3%) had SIC. Eight (42.1%) of the 19 patients in the SIC group and 60 (17.6%) of the 340 patients in the non-SIC group died during hospitalization. SIC was associated with an increased risk for all-cause in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–18.69; P=0.03). Independent predictors for the development of SIC were albumin level (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23–0.93; P=0.03) and culture positivity (OR, 8.47; 95% CI, 2.24–55.61; P=0.006). Concomitant right ventricular hypokinesis was noted in 13 (68.4%) of the 19 SIC patients.
Conclusions
SIC was associated with an increased risk for all-cause in-hospital mortality. Low albumin level and culture positivity were independent predictors of SIC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 Attenuates Myocardial and Mitochondrial Injury in Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy
    Tangtian Chen, Liang Ye, Jing Zhu, Bin Tan, Qin Yi, Yanting Sun, Qiumin Xie, Han Xiang, Rui Wang, Jie Tian, Hao Xu
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2024; 229(4): 1178.     CrossRef
  • Meta-Analysis of Initial Natriuretic Peptides in the Setting of Sepsis-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction
    Boyong He, Xin Wang, Liguo Shi, Hongbin Cheng, Luyi Zhao
    Biomarkers in Medicine.2024; 18(4): 145.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Dilemmas in Mixed Septic-Cardiogenic Shock
    Daniela Urina Jassir, Antoine H. Chaanine, Sapna Desai, Indranee Rajapreyar, Thierry H. Le Jemtel
    The American Journal of Medicine.2023; 136(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • A case of sepsis‐induced cardiomyopathy successfully treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
    Keigo Sato, Akihiro Naito, Taichi Shiratori, Masahiro Yamamoto, Kenichi Shimane, Manabu Mikami, Mariko Senda, Haruki Kume, Motofumi Suzuki
    IJU Case Reports.2023; 6(1): 26.     CrossRef
  • RNF20 deletion causes inflammation in model of sepsis through the NLRP3 activation
    Anlong Qi, Yancun Liu, Jianhua Zhai, Yongtao Wang, Wang Li, Tong Wang, Yanfen Chai
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology.2023; 45(4): 469.     CrossRef
  • S100a8/a9 contributes to sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy by activating ERK1/2-Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and respiratory dysfunction
    Feng Wu, Yan-Ting Zhang, Fei Teng, Hui-Hua Li, Shu-Bin Guo
    International Immunopharmacology.2023; 115: 109716.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound in Sepsis and Septic Shock—From Diagnosis to Treatment
    Gianluca Tullo, Marcello Candelli, Irene Gasparrini, Sara Micci, Francesco Franceschi
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(3): 1185.     CrossRef
  • A novel signature combing cuproptosis- and ferroptosis-related genes in sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy
    Juanjuan Song, Kairui Ren, Dexin Zhang, Xinpeng Lv, Lin Sun, Ying Deng, Huadong Zhu
    Frontiers in Genetics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Prognosis of Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Daisuke Hasegawa, Yoshiko Ishisaka, Tetsuro Maeda, Narut Prasitlumkum, Kazuki Nishida, Siddharth Dugar, Ryota Sato
    Journal of Intensive Care Medicine.2023; 38(9): 797.     CrossRef
  • Sepsis-Induced myocardial dysfunction: heterogeneity of functional effects and clinical significance
    Tatyana Shvilkina, Nathan Shapiro
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Research Progress on the Mechanism and Management of Septic Cardiomyopathy: A Comprehensive Review
    Xue-Bin Pei, Bo Liu, Maciej Dyrbuś
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Review Article
Infection
Up-to-date information on polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion for septic shock
Chieko Mitaka, Makio Kusaoi, Izumi Kawagoe, Daizoh Satoh
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(2):85-91.   Published online April 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00150
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Endotoxin adsorption therapy by polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) has been used for the treatment of septic shock patients. Endotoxin, an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Endotoxin triggers a signaling cascade for leukocytes, macrophage, and endothelial cells to secrete various mediators including cytokines and nitric oxide, leading to septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. PMX-DHP directly adsorbed not only endotoxin but also monocytes and anandamide. It reduced blood levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-17A, adhesion molecules, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and high mobility group box-1. As a result, PMX-DHP increased blood pressure and reduced the dose of vasoactive-inotropic agents. PMX-DHP improved monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. A post hoc analysis of EUPHRATES (Evaluating the Use of Polymyxin B Hemoperfusion in Randomized Controlled Trial of Adults Treated for Endotoxemia and Septic Shock) trial has shown that PMX-DHP significantly reduced 28-day mortality compared with the control group in septic shock patients with endotoxin activity assay level between 0.60 and 0.89. Longer duration of PMX-DHP may be another strategy to bring out the beneficial effects of PMX-DHP. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of PMX-DHP treatment for septic shock.

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Original Article
Basic science and research
Feasibility study of incident dark-field video microscope for measuring microcirculatory variables in the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model
Christine Kang, Ah-Reum Cho, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Hyae Jin Kim, Eun-Jung Kim, Soeun Jeo, Jeong-Min Hong, Daehoan Moon
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(1):29-36.   Published online February 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00969
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Despite the importance of microcirculation in organ function, monitoring microcirculation is not a routine practice. With developments in microscopic technology, incident dark field (IDF) microscopy (Cytocam) has allowed visualization of the microcirculation. Dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) mouse model has been used to investigate microcirculation physiology. By employing Cytocam-IDF imaging with DSC model to assess microcirculatory alteration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia, we attempted to validate availability of Cytocam-IDF imaging of microcirculation.
Methods
DSC was implanted in eight BALB/c mice for each group; control and sepsis. Both groups were given 72 hours to recover from surgery. The sepsis group had an additional 24-hour period of recovery post-LPS injection (4 mg/kg). Subsequently, a video of the microcirculation was recorded using Cytocam. Data on microcirculatory variables were obtained. Electron microscopy was implemented using lanthanum fixation to detect endothelial glycocalyx degradation.
Results
The microcirculatory flow index was significantly lower (control, 2.8±0.3; sepsis, 2.1±0.8; P=0.033) and heterogeneity index was considerably higher (control, 0.10±0.15; sepsis, 0.53±0.48; P=0.044) in the sepsis group than in the control group. Electron microscopy revealed glycocalyx demolishment in the sepsis group.
Conclusions
Cytocam showed reliable ability for observing changes in the microcirculation under septic conditions in the DSC model. The convenience and good imaging quality and the automatic analysis software available for Cytocam-IDF imaging, along with the ability to perform real-time in vivo experiments in the DSC model, are expected to be helpful in future microcirculation investigations.

Citations

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  • Sedation with propofol and isoflurane differs in terms of microcirculatory parameters: A randomized animal study using dorsal skinfold chamber mouse model
    Christine Kang, Ah-Reum Cho, Haekyu Kim, Jae-Young Kwon, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Eunsoo Kim
    Microvascular Research.2024; 153: 104655.     CrossRef
Review Article
Basic science and research
Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction: a review of pathophysiology
Reverien Habimana, Insu Choi, Hwa Jin Cho, Dowan Kim, Kyoseon Lee, Inseok Jeong
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(2):57-66.   Published online May 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00248
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It is well known that cardiac dysfunction in sepsis is associated with significantly increased mortality. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction can be summarized as involving impaired myocardial circulation, direct myocardial depression, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Impaired blood flow to the myocardium is associated with microvascular dysfunction, impaired endothelium, and ventriculo-arterial uncoupling. The mechanisms behind direct myocardial depression consist of downregulation of β-adrenoceptors and several myocardial suppressants (such as cytokine and nitric oxide). Recent research has highlighted that mitochondrial dysfunction, which results in energy depletion, is a major factor in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, the authors summarize the pathophysiological process of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis based on the results of recent studies.

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Original Article
Cardiology
Predictors and outcomes of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy in critically ill patients
Myung Jin Song, Sang Hoon Lee, Ah Young Leem, Song Yee Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Eun Young Kim, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Moo Suk Park
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(2):67-76.   Published online May 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00024
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) occurs frequently in critically ill patients, but the clinical features and prognostic impact of SIC on sepsis outcome remain controversial. Here, we investigated the predictors and outcomes of SIC.
Methods
Patients admitted to a single medical intensive care unit from June 2016 to September 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. SIC was diagnosed by ejection fraction (EF) <50% and ≥10% decrease in baseline EF that recovered within 2 weeks.
Results
In total, 342 patients with sepsis met the inclusion criteria, and 49 patients (14.3%) were diagnosed with SIC; the latter were compared with 259 patients whose EF was not deteriorated by sepsis (non-SIC). Low systolic blood pressure and increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were identified as predictors of SIC. SIC and non-SIC patients did not differ significantly in terms of 28-day all-cause mortality (24.5% vs. 26.3%, P=0.936). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II; hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidential interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.18; P=0.009) and delta neutrophil index (DNI; HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.08; P=0.026) were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality with SIC. DNI, APACHE II, and lactate were identified as risk factors for 28-day mortality in sepsis patients as a whole.
Conclusions
SIC was not associated with increased mortality compared to non-SIC. Low systolic blood pressure and increased LVEDD were predictors of SIC. High APACHE II score and elevated DNI, which reflect sepsis severity, predict 28-day all-cause mortality.

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ACC : Acute and Critical Care