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Articles in E-pub version are posted online ahead of regular printed publication.

Original Article
Infection
Comparative evaluation of tocilizumab and itolizumab for treatment of severe COVID-19 in India: a retrospective cohort study
Abhyuday Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, Arunima Pattanayak, Ajeet Kumar, Saravanan Palavesam, Pradhan Manigowdanahundi Nagaraju, Rekha Das
Received August 1, 2023  Accepted February 4, 2024  Published online April 1, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00983    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Itolizumab downregulates the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules by inhibiting CD6 leading to lower levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and tumor necrotic factor-α and reduced T-cell infiltration at inflammatory sites. This study aims to compare the effects of tocilizumab and itolizumab in the management of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
The study population was adults (>18 years) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit receiving either tocilizumab or itolizumab during their stay. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (CI), defined as a two-point reduction on a seven-point ordinal scale in the status of the patient from initiating the drug or live discharge. The secondary outcomes were time until CI, improvement in PO2/FiO2 ratio, best PO2/FiO2 ratio, need for mechanical ventilation after administration of study drugs, time to discharge, and survival days.
Results
Of the 126 patients included in the study, 92 received tocilizumab and 34 received itolizumab. CI was seen in 46.7% and 61.7% of the patients in the tocilizumab and itolizumab groups, respectively and was not statistically significant (P=0.134). The PO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly better with itolizumab compared to tocilizumab (median [interquartile range]: 315 [200–380] vs. 250 [150–350], P=0.043). The incidence of serious adverse events due to the study drugs was significantly higher with itolizumab compared to tocilizumab (14.7% vs. 3.3%, P=0.032).
Conclusions
The CI with itolizumab is similar to tocilizumab. Better oxygenation can be achieved with itolizumab and it can be a substitute for tocilizumab in managing severe COVID-19.
Corrigendum
Pediatrics
Corrigendum to: Development of a deep learning model for predicting critical events in a pediatric intensive care unit
In Kyung Lee, Bongjin Lee, June Dong Park
Received March 15, 2024  Accepted March 15, 2024  Published online April 1, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01424.e1    [Epub ahead of print]
Corrects: Acute Crit Care 2024;39(1):186
  • 247 View
  • 6 Download
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Case Reports
Neurosurgery
Use of droxidopa for blood pressure augmentation after acute spinal cord injury: case reports
Christopher S. Hong, Muhammad K. Effendi, Abdalla A. Ammar, Kent A. Owusu, Mahmoud A. Ammar, Andrew B. Koo, Layton A. Lamsam, Aladine A. Elsamadicy, Gregory A. Kuzmik, Maxwell Laurans, Michael L. DiLuna, Mark L. Landreneau
Received December 3, 2021  Accepted September 14, 2022  Published online December 7, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01662    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 2,828 View
  • 97 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hypotension secondary to autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) that may worsen neurologic outcomes. Midodrine, an enteral α-1 agonist, is often used to facilitate weaning intravenous (IV) vasopressors, but its use can be limited by reflex bradycardia. Alternative enteral agents to facilitate this wean in the acute post-SCI setting have not been described. We aim to describe novel application of droxidopa, an enteral precursor of norepinephrine that is approved to treat neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, in the acute post-SCI setting. Droxidopa may be an alternative enteral therapy for those intolerant of midodrine due to reflex bradycardia. We describe two patients suffering traumatic cervical SCI who were successfully weaned off IV vasopressors with droxidopa after failing with midodrine. The first patient was a 64-year-old male who underwent C3–6 laminectomies and fusion after a ten-foot fall resulting in quadriparesis. Post-operatively, the addition of midodrine in an attempt to wean off IV vasopressors resulted in significant reflexive bradycardia. Treatment with droxidopa facilitated rapidly weaning IV vasopressors and transfer to a lower level of care within 72 hours of treatment initiation. The second patient was a 73-year-old male who underwent C3–5 laminectomies and fusion for a traumatic hyperflexion injury causing paraplegia. The addition of midodrine resulted in severe bradycardia, prompting consideration of pacemaker placement. However, with the addition of droxidopa, this was avoided, and the patient was weaned off IV vasopressors on dual oral therapy with midodrine and droxidopa. Droxidopa may be a viable enteral therapy to treat hypotension in patients after acute SCI who are otherwise not tolerating midodrine in order to wean off IV vasopressors. This strategy may avoid pacemaker placement and facilitate shorter stays in the intensive care unit, particularly for patients who are stable but require continued intensive care unit admission for IV vasopressors, which can be cost ineffective and human resource depleting.
Pediatrics
Hydranencephaly in a newborn due to occupational toluene exposure during pregnancy: a case report
Banu Aydın, Edin Botan, Bülent Gülensoy, Seda Akyol
Received August 9, 2021  Accepted January 30, 2022  Published online July 15, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01081    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 2,752 View
  • 110 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The etiopathogenesis of hydranencephaly remains unclear; however, exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy likely increases hydranencephaly risk. Head computed tomography (CT) was performed in a neonate 9 hours post-delivery because the anterior fontanelle was large and there were clinical signs of encephalopathy. Head CT revealed a lack of both cerebral hemispheres and significant cystic enlargement, while the cerebellar hemispheres and pons were found to have developed normally. History-taking revealed that the mother worked in the automotive industry, specifically in the car paint cleaning business and was exposed to toluene during the pregnancy. The patient was diagnosed with hydranencephaly, central diabetes insipidus and central hypothyroidism. Due to the increased head circumference and tense anterior fontanelle, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Toluene exposure during pregnancy should be considered among the causes of hydranencephaly. Furthermore, central diabetes insipidus and central hypothyroidism may develop in such cases.
Neurosurgery
A point-of-care evaluation after visual loss following paraclinoid aneurysm repair: the role of sonographic and pupillometer assessment
Giacomo Bertolini, Ernesto Migliorino, Diego Mazzatenta, Carlo Bortolotti, Raffaele Aspide
Received January 9, 2022  Accepted March 17, 2022  Published online July 5, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00045    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 2,113 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Visual complications represent common deficits following surgical or endovascular repair of paraclinoid aneurysms. Different etiologies should be investigated to prevent devastating consequences. Herein we present a point-of-care evaluation to investigate sudden visual loss after coiling of a paraclinoid aneurysms. A 20-year-old male were admitted for a sudden headache. Head computed tomography showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage and subsequent angiography revealed a 9-mm left supraclinoid aneurysm of the internal carotid artery treated with endovascular coil embolization. Thirty minutes after intensive care unit admission the patient reported a left amaurosis. To exclude secondary etiologies an immediate evaluation with point-of-care devices (color-doppler and B-mode ultrasound and automated pupillometry) were performed. Sonographic evaluations were negative for ischemic/thrombotic events and neurologic pupil index within physiological ranges provide evidence of third cranial nerve responsiveness. The symptomatology resolved progressively over 120 minutes with low-dose steroid therapy, 30° head-of-bed elevation and blood pressure management. Visual deficits can occur after endovascular procedure and should be investigated. Suspected visual loss is a neurological emergency that deserve a prompt evaluation. Ultrasound and automated pupillometry have proved to be an effective, rapid, reliable and non-invasive combination for a clinical decision-making strategy in the management of post-procedural acute visual deficits.
Neurology
Abducens paralysis—a rare complication of spinal anesthesia at an emergency department: a case report
Mustafa Korkut, Cihan Bedel
Received December 4, 2021  Accepted January 28, 2022  Published online July 5, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01697    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 2,601 View
  • 50 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The sixth cranial nerve (CN VI) is a rare site of complication associated with spinal anesthesia and can produce secondary symptoms of ocular muscle palsy. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with complaint of diplopia and limited lateral gaze in the first week after endoscopic urological surgery under spinal anesthesia. Isolated unilateral CN VI palsy was considered after excluding differential diagnoses. Ocular palsy and diplopia regressed with conservative treatment during follow-up, and the patient was discharged. This article aims to show that CN VI palsy is a rare complication of spinal anesthesia, which can be observed in the emergency department.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cranial Nerve Six Palsy After Vaginal Delivery with Epidural Anesthesia: A Case Report
    Jennifer Olivarez, Scott Gutovitz, Caylyne Arnold
    The Journal of Emergency Medicine.2024; 66(3): e338.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Digital tomography in the diagnosis of a posterior pneumothorax in the intensive care unit
Shauni Wellekens, Nico Buls, Johan De Mey, Vincent Van Nieuwenhove, Jeroen Cant, Joop Jonckheer
Received December 24, 2021  Accepted February 4, 2022  Published online June 10, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01802    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 1,751 View
  • 56 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Portable chest radiography is a valuable tool in the intensive care unit. However, the supine position causes superposition of anatomical structures resulting in less reliable detection of certain abnormalities. Recently, a portable digital tomosynthesis (pDTS) prototype with a modified motorized X-ray device was developed. Our aim is to compare the diagnostic value of pDTS to standard bedside chest radiography in the diagnosis of a posterior pneumothorax. A modified motorized x-ray device was developed to perform 15 radiographic projections while translating the X-ray tube 25 cm (10 cm ramp up and 15 cm during X-ray exposure) with a total radiation dose of 0.54 mSv. This new technique of pDTS was performed in addition to standard bedside chest X-ray in a patient with a confirmed posterior hydropneumothorax. The images were compared with the standard bedside chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images by two experienced radiologists. The posterior hydropneumothorax previously identified with CT was visible on tomosynthesis images but not with standard bedside imaging. Combining the digital tomosynthesis technique with the portable x-ray machine could increase the diagnostic value of bedside chest radiography for the diagnosis of posterior pneumothoraces, while avoiding intrahospital transport and limiting radiation exposure compared to CT.
Cardiology
Successful neural modulation of bedside modified thoracic epidural anesthesia for ventricular tachycardia electrical storm
Ki-Woon Kang
Received November 17, 2021  Accepted March 7, 2022  Published online May 31, 2022  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01683    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 1,508 View
  • 32 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) storm can be hemodynamically compromising and life-threatening. Management of medically refractory VT/VF storm is challenging in the intensive care unit. A 38-year-old male patient was diagnosed with non-ischemic heart failure and acute kidney injury with documented frequent premature ventricular contraction with QT prolongation after recurrent VT/VF. Even though the patient was intubated with sedatives and had taken more than two anti-arrhythmic drugs with external recurrent defibrillation at bedside, the electrical storm persisted for several hours. However, medically refractory VT/VF storm can be successfully and rapidly terminated with a modified thoracic epidural anesthesia at bedside. This case demonstrates that a bedside thoracic epidural anesthesia can be an effective non-pharmacological option to treat medically refractory VT/VF storm in the intensive care unit.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Continuous stellate ganglion block for ventricular arrhythmias: case series, systematic review, and differences from thoracic epidural anaesthesia
    Veronica Dusi, Filippo Angelini, Enrico Baldi, Antonio Toscano, Carol Gravinese, Simone Frea, Sara Compagnoni, Arianna Morena, Andrea Saglietto, Eleonora Balzani, Matteo Giunta, Andrea Costamagna, Mauro Rinaldi, Anna Chiara Trompeo, Roberto Rordorf, Matte
    Europace.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care