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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Review Article
Trauma
Abdominal compartment syndrome in critically ill patients
Hyunseok Jang, Naa Lee, Euisung Jeong, Yunchul Park, Younggoun Jo, Jungchul Kim, Dowan Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):399-408.   Published online November 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01263
  • 3,686 View
  • 1,878 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Intra-abdominal hypertension can have severe consequences, including abdominal compartment syndrome, which can contribute to multi-organ failure. An increase in intra-abdominal hypertension is influenced by factors such as diminished abdominal wall compliance, increased intraluminal content, and certain systemic conditions. Regular measurement of intra-abdominal pressure is essential, and particular attention must be paid to patient positioning. Nonsurgical treatments, such as decompression of intraluminal content using a nasogastric tube, percutaneous drainage, and fluid balance optimization, play crucial roles. Additionally, point-of-care ultrasonography aids in the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension. Emphasizing the importance of regular measurements, timely decompressive laparotomy is a definitive, but complex, treatment option. Balancing the urgency of surgical intervention against potential postoperative complications is challenging.
Case Report
Neurosurgery
What should an intensivist know about pneumocephalus and tension pneumocephalus?
Bhushan Sudhakar Wankhade, Maged Mohsen Kamel Beniamein, Zeyad Faoor Alrais, Jyoti Ittoop Mathew, Ghaya Zeyad Alrais
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(2):244-248.   Published online April 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01102
  • 11,329 View
  • 314 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Collection of air in the cranial cavity is called pneumocephalus. Although simple pneumocephalus is a benign condition, accompanying increased intracranial pressure can produce a life-threatening condition comparable to tension pneumothorax, which is termed tension pneumocephalus. We report a case of tension pneumocephalus after drainage of a cerebrospinal fluid hygroma. The tension pneumocephalus was treated with decompression craniotomy, but the patient later died due to the complications related to critical care. Traumatic brain injury and neurosurgical intervention are the most common causes of pneumocephalus. Pneumocephalus and tension pneumocephalus are neurosurgical emergencies, and anesthetics and intensive care management like the use of nitrous oxide during anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation have important implications in their development and progress. Clinically, patients can present with various nonspecific neurological manifestations that are indistinguishable from a those of a primary neurological condition. If the diagnosis is questionable, patients should be investigated using computed tomography of the brain. Immediate neurosurgical consultation with decompression is the treatment of choice.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sudden-onset, non-traumatic large volume pneumocephalus following presentation of acute bacterial meningitis
    Alexandra Krez, Michael Malinzak, Colby Feeney
    BMJ Case Reports.2024; 17(1): e256194.     CrossRef
  • Pneumocephalus; a rare cause of coma
    Elisavet Simoulidou, Vivian Georgopoulou, Panagiotis Kalmoukos, Dimitrios Kouroupis, Nikoleta Moscha, Maria Sidiropoulou, Sofia Chatzimichailidou, Konstantinos Petidis, Athina Pyrpasopoulou
    The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.2023; 68: 215.e1.     CrossRef
  • Pneumocephalus secondary to epidural analgesia: a case report
    Maira Ahmad, Shannay Bellamy, William Ott, Rany Mekhail
    Journal of Medical Case Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transnasal Endoscopic Treatment of Tension Pneumocephalus Caused by Posttraumatic or Iatrogenic Ethmoidal Damage
    Goran Latif Omer, Riccardo Maurizi, Beatrice Francavilla, Kareem Rekawt Hama Rashid, Gianluca Velletrani, Hasan Mustafa Salah, Giulia Marzocchella, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari, Stefano Di Girolamo, Rong-San Jiang
    Case Reports in Otolaryngology.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
  • Tension pneumocephalus as a complication of surgical evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: case report and literature review
    Mohammed A. Azab, Ahmed Hazem, Brandon Lucke-Wold
    Exploration of Neuroprotective Therapy.2023; 3(4): 177.     CrossRef
Review Articles
Trauma
Mobilization phases in traumatic brain injury
Tommy Alfandy Nazwar, Ivan Triangto, Gutama Arya Pringga, Farhad Bal’afif, Donny Wisnu Wardana
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(3):261-270.   Published online August 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00640
  • 3,420 View
  • 236 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mobilization in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have shown the improvement of length of stay, infection, long term weakness, and disability. Primary damage as a result of trauma’s direct effect (skull fracture, hematoma, contusion, laceration, and nerve damage) and secondary damage caused by trauma’s indirect effect (microvasculature damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine) result in reduced tissue perfusion & edema. These can be facilitated through mobilization, but several precautions must be recognized as mobilization itself may further deteriorate patient’s condition. Very few studies have discussed in detail regarding mobilizing patients in TBI cases. Therefore, the scope of this review covers the detail of physiological effects, guideline, precautions, and technique of mobilization in patients with TBI.
Neurosurgery
Brain-lung interaction: a vicious cycle in traumatic brain injury
Ariana Alejandra Chacón-Aponte, Érika Andrea Durán-Vargas, Jaime Adolfo Arévalo-Carrillo, Iván David Lozada-Martínez, Maria Paz Bolaño-Romero, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Pedro Grille, Tariq Janjua
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):35-44.   Published online February 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01193
  • 12,466 View
  • 825 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The brain-lung interaction can seriously affect patients with traumatic brain injury, triggering a vicious cycle that worsens patient prognosis. Although the mechanisms of the interaction are not fully elucidated, several hypotheses, notably the “blast injury” theory or “double hit” model, have been proposed and constitute the basis of its development and progression. The brain and lungs strongly interact via complex pathways from the brain to the lungs but also from the lungs to the brain. The main pulmonary disorders that occur after brain injuries are neurogenic pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the principal brain disorders after lung injuries include brain hypoxia and intracranial hypertension. All of these conditions are key considerations for management therapies after traumatic brain injury and need exceptional case-by-case monitoring to avoid neurological or pulmonary complications. This review aims to describe the history, pathophysiology, risk factors, characteristics, and complications of brain-lung and lung-brain interactions and the impact of different old and recent modalities of treatment in the context of traumatic brain injury.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Acute brain injury increases pulmonary capillary permeability via sympathetic activation-mediated high fluid shear stress and destruction of the endothelial glycocalyx layer
    Na Zhao, Chao Liu, Xinxin Tian, Juan Yang, Tianen Wang
    Experimental Cell Research.2024; 434(2): 113873.     CrossRef
  • Oral administration of lysozyme protects against injury of ileum via modulating gut microbiota dysbiosis after severe traumatic brain injury
    Weijian Yang, Caihua Xi, Haijun Yao, Qiang Yuan, Jun Zhang, Qifang Chen, Gang Wu, Jin Hu
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ventilatory targets following brain injury
    Shaurya Taran, Sarah Wahlster, Chiara Robba
    Current Opinion in Critical Care.2023; 29(2): 41.     CrossRef
  • Uncertainty in Neurocritical Care: Recognizing Its Relevance for Clinical Decision Making
    Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, William A. Florez-Perdomo, Tariq Janjua
    Indian Journal of Neurotrauma.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Targeted Nanocarriers Co-Opting Pulmonary Intravascular Leukocytes for Drug Delivery to the Injured Brain
    Jia Nong, Patrick M. Glassman, Jacob W. Myerson, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Alba Rodriguez-Garcia, Alvin Mukalel, Serena Omo-Lamai, Landis R. Walsh, Marco E. Zamora, Xijing Gong, Zhicheng Wang, Kartik Bhamidipati, Raisa Y. Kiseleva, Carlos H. Villa, Colin F
    ACS Nano.2023; 17(14): 13121.     CrossRef
  • Manejo postoperatorio de resección de tumores cerebrales en la unidad de cuidado intensivo
    Andrés Felipe Naranjo Ramírez, Álvaro de Jesús Medrano Areiza, Bryan Arango Sánchez, Juan Carlos Arango Martínez, Luis Fermín Naranjo Atehortúa
    Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Modulation of MAPK/NF-κB Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome by Secondary Metabolites from Red Algae: A Mechanistic Study
    Asmaa Nabil-Adam, Mohamed L. Ashour, Mohamed Attia Shreadah
    ACS Omega.2023; 8(41): 37971.     CrossRef
  • American Association for the Surgery of Trauma/American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma clinical protocol for management of acute respiratory distress syndrome and severe hypoxemia
    Jason A. Fawley, Christopher J. Tignanelli, Nicole L. Werner, George Kasotakis, Samuel P. Mandell, Nina E. Glass, David J. Dries, Todd W. Costantini, Lena M. Napolitano
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.2023; 95(4): 592.     CrossRef
  • Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, and brain oxygenation in acute brain injury: Friend or foe? A scoping review
    Greta Zunino, Denise Battaglini, Daniel Agustin Godoy
    Journal of Intensive Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The role of cardiac dysfunction and post-traumatic pulmonary embolism in brain-lung interactions following traumatic brain injury
    Mabrouk Bahloul, Karama Bouchaala, Najeh Baccouche, Kamilia Chtara, Hedi Chelly, Mounir Bouaziz
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(2): 266.     CrossRef
  • Allocation of Donor Lungs in Korea
    Hye Ju Yeo
    Journal of Chest Surgery.2022; 55(4): 274.     CrossRef
  • Mapping brain endophenotypes associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis genetic risk
    Ali-Reza Mohammadi-Nejad, Richard J. Allen, Luke M. Kraven, Olivia C. Leavy, R. Gisli Jenkins, Louise V. Wain, Dorothee P. Auer, Stamatios N. Sotiropoulos
    eBioMedicine.2022; 86: 104356.     CrossRef
  • Use of bedside ultrasound in the evaluation of acute dyspnea: a comprehensive review of evidence on diagnostic usefulness
    Ivan David Lozada-Martinez, Isabela Zenilma Daza-Patiño, Gerardo Jesus Farley Reina-González, Sebastián Rojas-Pava, Ailyn Zenith Angulo-Lara, María Paola Carmona-Rodiño, Olga Gissela Sarmiento-Najar, Jhon Mike Romero-Madera, Yesid Alonso Ángel-Hernandez
    Revista Investigación en Salud Universidad de Boyacá.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Guideline
Pharmacology
2021 KSCCM clinical practice guidelines for pain, agitation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disturbance in the intensive care unit
Yijun Seo, Hak-Jae Lee, Eun Jin Ha, Tae Sun Ha
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):1-25.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00094
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(1):149
  • 13,620 View
  • 1,480 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We revised and expanded the “2010 Guideline for the Use of Sedatives and Analgesics in the Adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU).” We revised the 2010 Guideline based mainly on the 2018 “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption (PADIS) in Adult Patients in the ICU,” which was an updated 2013 pain, agitation, and delirium guideline with the inclusion of two additional topics (rehabilitation/mobility and sleep). Since it was not possible to hold face-to-face meetings of panels due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all discussions took place via virtual conference platforms and e-mail with the participation of all panelists. All authors drafted the recommendations, and all panelists discussed and revised the recommendations several times. The quality of evidence for each recommendation was classified as high (level A), moderate (level B), or low/very low (level C), and all panelists voted on the quality level of each recommendation. The participating panelists had no conflicts of interest on related topics. The development of this guideline was independent of any industry funding. The Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility (rehabilitation/mobilization), and Sleep Disturbance panels issued 42 recommendations (level A, 6; level B, 18; and level C, 18). The 2021 clinical practice guideline provides up-to-date information on how to prevent and manage pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disturbance in adult ICU patients. We believe that these guidelines can provide an integrated method for clinicians to manage PADIS in adult ICU patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Potentially inappropriate medications with older people in intensive care and associated factors: a historic cohort study
    Karina Sichieri, Danilo Donizetti Trevisan, Ricardo Luís Barbosa, Silvia Regina Secoli
    Sao Paulo Medical Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Psychiatric Consults Associated With Longer Length of Stay in Trauma Patients—A Retrospective Study
    Sanjay Balijepalli, Kathryn Mansuri, Cindy Gonzalez, Oveys Mansuri
    Journal of Surgical Research.2024; 293: 46.     CrossRef
  • Sleep in the intensive and intermediate care units: Exploring related factors of delirium, benzodiazepine use and mortality
    Adrienne E. van der Hoeven, Denise Bijlenga, Ernst van der Hoeven, Mink S. Schinkelshoek, Floor W. Hiemstra, Laura Kervezee, David J. van Westerloo, Rolf Fronczek, Gert Jan Lammers
    Intensive and Critical Care Nursing.2024; 81: 103603.     CrossRef
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Indonesian version of the Critical-care Pain Observation Tool
    Luthfi Fauzy Asriyanto, Nur Chayati
    International Journal of Nursing Sciences.2024; 11(1): 113.     CrossRef
  • Postoperative Psychoses in Patients with Brain Gliomas
    O. S. Zaitsev, N. P. Ilyaev, O. A. Maksakova
    Psikhiatriya.2024; 21(7): 65.     CrossRef
  • End‐of‐life care in the intensive care unit
    M. Tanaka Gutiez, N. Efstathiou, R. Innes, V. Metaxa
    Anaesthesia.2023; 78(5): 636.     CrossRef
  • The Profile of Early Sedation Depth and Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients in Korea
    Dong-gon Hyun, Jee Hwan Ahn, Ha-Yeong Gil, Chung Mo Nam, Choa Yun, Jae-Myeong Lee, Jae Hun Kim, Dong-Hyun Lee, Ki Hoon Kim, Dong Jung Kim, Sang-Min Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Suk-Kyung Hong, Jae-Bum Kim, Eun Young Choi, JongHyun Baek, Jeoungmin Kim, Eun Jin Kim, T
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship between the PRE-DELIRIC score and the prognosis in COVID-19 ICU patients
    Bilge Banu Taşdemir Mecit
    Journal of Surgery and Medicine.2023; 7(5): 343.     CrossRef
  • Systemic Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatories for Analgesia in Postoperative Critical Care Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials
    Chen Hsiang Ma, Kimberly B. Tworek, Janice Y. Kung, Sebastian Kilcommons, Kathleen Wheeler, Arabesque Parker, Janek Senaratne, Erika Macintyre, Wendy Sligl, Constantine J. Karvellas, Fernando G. Zampieri, Demetrios Jim Kutsogiannis, John Basmaji, Kimberle
    Critical Care Explorations.2023; 5(7): e0938.     CrossRef
  • Pain Control and Sedation in Neuro Intensive Critical Unit
    Soo-Hyun Park, Yerim Kim, Yeojin Kim, Jong Seok Bae, Ju-Hun Lee, Wookyung Kim, Hong-Ki Song
    Journal of the Korean Neurological Association.2023; 41(3): 169.     CrossRef
  • Preoperative Anxiety and Its Postoperative Associated Factors in Patients Receiving Post Anesthetic Recovery Care at Surgical Intensive Care Unit
    Yul Ha Lee, Hye-Ja Park
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2023; 48(3): 267.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic Value of the Bispectral Index to Assess Sleep Quality after Elective Surgery in Intensive Care Unit
    Naricha Chirakalwasan, Pongpol Sirilaksanamanon, Thammasak Thawitsri, Somrat Charuluxananan
    Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2023; 27(11): 795.     CrossRef
  • Sedation of patients in intensive care units. Guidelines
    V.I. Potievskaya, I.B. Zabolotskikh, I.E. Gridchik, A.I. Gritsan, A.A. Eremenko, I.A. Kozlov, A.L. Levit, V.A. Mazurok, I.V. Molchanov
    Anesteziologiya i reanimatologiya.2023; (5): 6.     CrossRef
  • Sedation for Patients with Sepsis: Towards a Personalised Approach
    José Miguel Marcos-Vidal, Rafael González, María Merino, Eva Higuera, Cristina García
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(12): 1641.     CrossRef
  • Performance, Knowledge, and Barrier Awareness of Medical Staff Regarding the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption in Adult Critical Care Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Hyo-Geun Song, Duckhee Chae, Sung-Hee Yoo
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2023; 35(4): 379.     CrossRef
  • ICU-Induced Disability Persists With or Without COVID-19—This Is a Call for F to A Bundle Action*
    Heidi Engel
    Critical Care Medicine.2022; 50(11): 1665.     CrossRef
  • Actigraphy-Based Assessment of Sleep Parameters in Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Respiratory Support Therapy
    Jiyeon Kang, Yongbin Kwon
    Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing.2022; 15(3): 115.     CrossRef
Review Articles
Pulmonary
Asynchronies during invasive mechanical ventilation: narrative review and update
Santiago Nicolás Saavedra, Patrick Valentino Sepúlveda Barisich, José Benito Parra Maldonado, Romina Belén Lumini, Alberto Gómez-González, Adrián Gallardo
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):491-501.   Published online November 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01158
  • 11,976 View
  • 2,104 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Invasive mechanical ventilation is a frequent therapy in critically ill patients in critical care units. To achieve favorable outcomes, patient and ventilator interaction must be adequate. However, many clinical situations could attempt against this principle and generate a mismatch between these two actors. These asynchronies can lead the patient to worst outcomes; that is why it is vital to recognize and treat these entities as soon as possible. Early detection and recognition of the different asynchronies could favor the reduction of the days of mechanical ventilation, the days of hospital stay, and intensive care and improve clinical results.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Patient Self-Inflicted Lung Injury—A Narrative Review of Pathophysiology, Early Recognition, and Management Options
    Peter Sklienka, Michal Frelich, Filip Burša
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(4): 593.     CrossRef
  • Actualización sobre sedoanalgesia en paciente bajo ventilación mecánica
    Onan Emanuel Gregorio
    Revista de Postgrados de Medicina.2022; 1(1): 27.     CrossRef
Cardiology
Beta-blocker therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction: not all patients need it
Seung-Jae Joo
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(3):251-260.   Published online August 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00955
  • 7,492 View
  • 2,155 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Most of the evidences for beneficial effects of beta-blockers in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were from the clinical studies published in the pre-reperfusion era when anti-platelet drugs, statins or inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which are known to reduce cardiovascular mortality of patients with AMI were not introduced. In the reperfusion era, beta-blockers’ benefit has not been clearly shown except in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF; ≤40%). In the era of the early reperfusion therapy for AMI, a number of patients with mildly reduced EF (>40%, <50%) or preserved EF (≥50%) become increasing. However, because no randomized clinical trials are available until now, the benefit and the optimal duration of oral treatment with beta-blockers in patients with mildly reduced or preserved EF are questionable. Registry data have not showed the association of oral beta-blocker therapy with decreased mortality in survivors without heart failure or left ventricular systolic dysfunction after AMI. In the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institute of Health of in-hospital survivors after AMI, the benefit of beta-blocker therapy at discharge was shown in patients with reduced or mildly reduced EF, but not in those with preserved EF, which provides new information about beta-blocker therapy in patients without reduced EF. However, clinical practice can be changed when the results of appropriate randomized clinical trials are available. Ongoing clinical trials may help to answer the unresolved issues of beta-blocker therapy in patients with AMI.
Surgery
Early detection and assessment of intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a comprehensive review
Hanan Elkalawy, Pavan Sekhar, Wael Abosena
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):409-424.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00703
  • 1,347 View
  • 168 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is a serious complication in critically ill patients. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of ICU-AW are crucial for effectively preventing its associated morbidity and mortality. This article provides a comprehensive review of ICU-AW, focusing on the different methods used for its diagnosis and monitoring. Additionally, it highlights the role of bedside ultrasound in muscle assessment and early detection of ICU-AW. Furthermore, the article explores potential strategies for preventing ICU-AW. Healthcare providers who manage critically ill patients utilize diagnostic approaches such as physical exams, imaging, and assessment tools to identify ICU-AW. However, each method has its own limitations. The diagnosis of ICU-AW needs improvement due to the lack of a consensus on the appropriate approach for its detection. Nevertheless, bedside ultrasound has proven to be the most reliable and cost-effective tool for muscle assessment in the ICU. Combining the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score assessment, and ultrasound can be a convenient approach for the early detection of ICU-AW. This approach can facilitate timely intervention and prevent catastrophic consequences. However, further studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.
CPR/Resuscitation
Plasma biomarkers for brain injury in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Shrey Kapoor, Anna Kolchinski, Aaron M. Gusdon, Lavienraj Premraj, Sung-Min Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):389-398.   Published online November 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01368
  • 1,192 View
  • 64 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving intervention for patients with refractory cardiorespiratory failure. Despite its benefits, ECMO carries a significant risk of neurological complications, including acute brain injury (ABI). Although standardized neuromonitoring and neurological care have been shown to improve early detection of ABI, the inability to perform neuroimaging in a timely manner is a major limitation in the accurate diagnosis of neurological complications. Therefore, blood-based biomarkers capable of detecting ongoing brain injury at the bedside are of great clinical significance. This review aims to provide a concise review of the current literature on plasma biomarkers for ABI in patients on ECMO support.
Original Articles
Pulmonary
Risk factors for mortality in intensive care unit patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pneumonia in South Korea
Yong Hoon Lee, Jaehee Lee, Byunghyuk Yu, Won Kee Lee, Sun Ha Choi, Ji Eun Park, Hyewon Seo, Seung Soo Yoo, Shin Yup Lee, Seung-Ick Cha, Chang Ho Kim, Jae Yong Park
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):442-451.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00682
  • 1,050 View
  • 55 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality. Data on the prognostic factors associated with S. maltophilia pneumonia in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 117 patients with S. maltophilia pneumonia admitted to the ICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals in South Korea between January 2011 and December 2022. To assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results
The median age of the study population was 71 years. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was 76.1% of cases, and the median length of ICU stay before the first isolation of S. maltophilia was 15 days. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 82.1%, and factors independently associated with mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.09; P=0.046), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR, 1.21; 95%; CI, 1.02–1.43; P=0.025), corticosteroid use (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.26–13.91; P=0.019), and polymicrobial infection (OR, 95% CI 0.07–0.69). However, the impact of appropriate antibiotic therapy on mortality was insignificant. In a subgroup of patients who received appropriate antibiotic therapy (n=58), antibiotic treatment modality-related variables, including combination or empirical therapy, also showed no significant association with survival.
Conclusions
Patients with S. maltophilia pneumonia in ICU have high mortality rates. Older age, higher SOFA score, and corticosteroid use were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality, whereas polymicrobial infection was associated with lower mortality. The effect of appropriate antibiotic therapy on prognosis was insignificant.
Infection
Methylprednisolone pulse therapy for critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study
Keum-Ju Choi, Soo Kyun Jung, Kyung Chan Kim, Eun Jin Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):57-67.   Published online February 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00941
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(2):249
  • 2,737 View
  • 122 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The guidelines recommend the use of dexamethasone 6 mg or an equivalent dose in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require supplemental oxygen. Given that the severity of COVID-19 varies, we investigated the effect of a pulse dose of corticosteroids on the clinical course of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted between September and December 2021, which was when the Delta variant of the COVID-19 virus was predominant. We evaluated the mortality and oxygenation of severe to critical COVID-19 cases between groups that received dexamethasone 6 mg for 10 days (control group) and methylprednisolone 250 mg/day for 3 days (pulse group). Results: Among 44 patients, 14 and 30 patients were treated with control steroids and pulse steroids, respectively. There was no difference in disease severity, time from COVID-19 diagnosis to steroid administration, or use of remdesivir or antibacterial agents between the two groups. The pulse steroid group showed a significant improvement in oxygenation before and after steroid treatment (P<0.001) compared with the control steroid group (P=0.196). There was no difference in in-hospital mortality (P=0.186); however, the pulse steroid group had a lower mortality rate (23.3%) than the control steroid group (42.9%). There was a significant difference in the length of hospital stay between both two groups (P=0.039). Conclusions: Pulse steroids showed no mortality benefit but were associated with oxygenation improvement and shorter hospital stay than control steroids. Hyperglycemia should be carefully monitored with pulse steroids.
Pulmonary
Combining reservoir mask oxygenation with high-flow nasal cannula in the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study
Ivan Gur, Ronen Zalts, Yaniv Dotan, Khitam Hussain, Ami Neuberger, Eyal Fuchs
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):435-441.   Published online November 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00451
  • 1,035 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Concerns regarding positive-pressure-ventilation for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxemia led the search for alternative oxygenation techniques. This study aimed to assess one such method, dual oxygenation, i.e., the addition of a reservoir mask (RM) on top of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC).
Methods
In this retrospective cohort study, the records of all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during 2020–2022 were reviewed. Patients over the age of 18 years with hypoxemia necessitating HFNC were included. Exclusion criteria were positive-pressure-ventilation for any indication other than hypoxemic respiratory failure, transfer to another facility while still on HFNC and “do-not-intubate/resuscitate” orders. The primary outcome was mortality within 30 days from the first application of HFNC. Secondary outcomes were intubation and admission to the intensive care unit.
Results
Of 659 patients included in the final analysis, 316 were treated with dual oxygenation and 343 with HFNC alone. Propensity for treatment was estimated based on background diagnoses, laboratories and vital signs upon admission, gender and glucocorticoid dose. Inverse probability of treatment weighted regression including age, body mass index, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and respiratory rate oxygenation index showed treatment with dual oxygenation to be associated with lower 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.615; 95% confidence interval, 0.469–0.809). Differences in the secondary outcomes did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that the addition of RM on top of HFNC may be associated with decreased mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 hypoxemia.
Infection
Healthcare-associated infections in critical COVID-19 patients in Tunis: epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes
Ahlem Trifi, Selim Sellaouti, Asma Mehdi, Lynda Messaoud, Eya Seghir, Badis Tlili, Sami Abdellatif
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):425-434.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00773
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted adherences to healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention protocols. Herein, we studied the characteristics of all HAIs occurring in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Methods
A retrospective, single-center cohort of critical COVID-19 patients during 2021. Microbiological samples were collected if HAI was suspected. We analyzed all factors that could potentially induce HAI, using septic shock and mortality as endpoints.
Results
Sixty-four among 161 included patients (39.7%) presented a total of 117 HAIs with an incidence density of 69.2 per 1,000 hospitalization days. Compared to the prior COVID-19 period (2013–2019), the identification of HAI increased in 2021. HAIs were classified into ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; n=38), bloodstream infection (n=32), urinary tract infection (n=24), catheter-related infection (n=12), and fungal infection (n=11). All HAIs occurred significantly earlier in the post–COVID-19 period (VAP: 6 vs. 10 days, P=0.045, in 2017 and 2021). Acinetobacter baumannii (39.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (27%) were the most commonly isolated pathogens that exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile, observed in 89% and 64.5%, respectively. The HAI factors were laboratory abnormalities (odds ratio [OR], 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–26.0), cumulative steroid dose (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3–4.0), and invasive procedures (OR, 20.7; 95% CI, 5.3–64.0). HAI was an independent factor of mortality (OR, 8.5; P=0.004).
Conclusions
During the COVID-19 era, the incidence of HAIs increased and MDR isolates remained frequent. A severe biological inflammatory syndrome, invasive devices, and elevated cumulative steroid dosages were related to HAIs. HAI was a significant death factor.
Review Article
Pulmonary
Lung ultrasound for evaluation of dyspnea: a pictorial review
Aparna Murali, Anjali Prakash, Rashmi Dixit, Monica Juneja, Naresh Kumar
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):502-515.   Published online November 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00780
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Lung ultrasound is based on the analysis of ultrasound artifacts generated by the pleura and air within the lungs. In recent years, lung ultrasound has emerged as an important alternative for quick evaluation of the patient at the bedside. Several techniques and protocols for performing lung ultrasound have been described in the literature, with the most popular one being the Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency (BLUE) protocol which can be utilized to diagnose the cause of acute dyspnea at the bedside. We attempt to provide a simplified approach to understanding the physics behind the artifacts used in lung ultrasound, the imaging techniques, and the application of the BLUE protocol to diagnose the commonly presenting causes of acute dyspnea.
Original Article
Pulmonary
Diaphragm ultrasound as a better predictor of successful extubation from mechanical ventilation than rapid shallow breathing index
Mohammad Jhahidul Alam, Simanta Roy, Mohammad Azmain Iktidar, Fahmida Khatun Padma, Khairul Islam Nipun, Sreshtha Chowdhury, Ranjan Kumar Nath, Harun-Or Rashid
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):94-100.   Published online January 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01354
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  • 11 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
In 3%–19% of patients, reintubation is needed 48–72 hours following extubation, which increases intensive care unit (ICU) morbidity, mortality, and expenses. Extubation failure is frequently caused by diaphragm dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to determine the mobility and thickness of the diaphragm. This study looked at the role of diaphragm excursion (DE) and thickening fraction in predicting successful extubation from mechanical ventilation.
Methods
Thirty-one patients were extubated with the advice of an ICU consultant using the ICU weaning regimen and diaphragm ultrasonography was performed. Ultrasound DE and thickening fraction were measured three times: at the commencement of the t-piece experiment, at 10 minutes, and immediately before extubation. All patients' parameters were monitored for 48 hours after extubation. Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) was also measured at the same time.
Results
Successful extubation was significantly correlated with DE (P=0.01). Receiver curve analysis for DE to predict successful extubation revealed good properties (area under the curve [AUC], 0.83; P<0.001); sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 84.6%, positive predictive value (PPV), 87.5%; negative predictive value (NPV), 73.3% while cut-off value, 11.43 mm. Diaphragm thickening fraction (DTF) also revealed moderate curve properties (AUC, 0.69; P=0.06); sensitivity, 61.1%; specificity, 84.6%; PPV, 87.5%; NPV, 61.1% with cut-off value 22.33% although former one was slightly better. RSBI could not reach good receiver operating characteristic value at cut-off points 100 b/min/L (AUC, 0.58; P=0.47); sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 53.8%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 53.8%).
Conclusions
To decrease the rate of reintubation, DE and DTF are better indicators of successful extubation. DE outperforms DTF.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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ACC : Acute and Critical Care