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Pediatrics
Prevalence of extracorporeal blood purification techniques in critically ill patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt
Aya Osama Mohammed, Hanaa I. Rady
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(1):70-77.   Published online February 1, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00654
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Extracorporeal blood-purification techniques are frequently needed in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), yet data on their clinical application are lacking. This study aims to review the indications, rate of application, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes of patients undergoing extracorporeal blood purification (i.e., by continuous renal replacement therapy [CRRT] or therapeutic plasma exchange [TPE]) in our PICU, including before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2019 and during the pandemic from 2020 to 2022. Methods: This study included children admitted for extracorporeal blood-purification therapy in the PICU. The indications for TPE were analyzed and compared to the American Society for Apheresis categories. Results: In 82 children, 380 TPE sessions and 37 CRRT sessions were carried out children, with 65 patients (79%) receiving TPE, 17 (20.7%) receiving CRRT, and four (4.8%) receiving both therapies. The most common indications for TPE were neurological diseases (39/82, 47.5%), followed by hematological diseases (18/82, 21.9%). CRRT was mainly performed for patients suffering from acute kidney injury. Patients with neurological diseases received the greatest number of TPE sessions (295, 77.6%). Also, the year 2022 contained the greatest number of patients receiving extracorporeal blood-purification therapy (either CRRT or TPE). Conclusions: The use of extracorporeal blood-purification techniques increased from 2019 through 2022 due to mainly autoimmune dysregulation among affected patients. TPE can be safely used in an experienced PICU. No serious adverse events were observed in the patients that received TPE, and overall survival over the 4 years was 86.5%.
Pediatrics
Implementation and effectiveness of a delirium care protocol in Thai critically ill children
Chanapai Chaiyakulsil, Thananya Thadahirunchot
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):488-497.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00045
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium in critically ill children can result in long-term morbidity. Our main objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of a new protocol on the reduction, prevalence, and duration of delirium and to identify associated risk factors.
Methods
The effectiveness of the protocol was evaluated by a chart review in all critically ill children aged 1 month to 15 years during the study period. A Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium score ≥9 was considered positive for delirium. Data on delirium prevalence and duration from the pre-implementation and post-implementation phases were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors of delirium.
Results
A total of 120 children was analyzed (58 children in the pre-implementation group and 62 children in the post-implementation group). Fifty children (41.7%) screened positive for delirium. Age less than 2 years, delayed development, use of mechanical ventilation, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay >7 days were significantly associated with delirium. The proportion of children screened positive was not significantly different after the implementation (before, 39.7% vs. after, 43.5%; P=0.713). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery.
Conclusions
The newly implemented protocol was able to reduce the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery. More studies should be conducted to reduce delirium to prevent long-term morbidity after PICU discharge.
Pediatric
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetic ketoacidosis management in the pediatric intensive care unit
Fevzi Kahveci, Buse Önen Ocak, Emrah Gün, Anar Gurbanov, Hacer Uçmak, Ayşen Durak Aslan, Ayşegül Ceran, Hasan Özen, Burak Balaban, Edin Botan, Zeynep Şıklar, Merih Berberoğlu, Tanıl Kendirli
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(3):371-379.   Published online August 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00038
  • 1,767 View
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common endocrine emergency in pediatric patients. Early presentation to health facilities, diagnosis, and good management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are crucial for better outcomes in children with DKA.
Methods
This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted between February 2015 and January 2022. Patients with DKA were divided into two groups according to pandemic status and diabetes diagnosis.
Results
The study enrolled 59 patients, and their mean age was 11±5 years. Forty (68%) had newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 61% received follow-up in the pre-pandemic period. Blood glucose, blood ketone, potassium, phosphorus, and creatinine levels were significantly higher in the new-onset T1DM group compared with the previously diagnosed group (P=0.01, P=0.02, P<0.001, P=0.01, and P=0.08, respectively). In patients with newly diagnosed T1DM, length of PICU stays were longer than in those with previously diagnosed T1DM (28.5±8.9 vs. 17.3±6.7 hours, P<0.001). The pandemic group was compared with pre-pandemic group, there was a statistically significant difference in laboratory parameters of pH, HCO3, and lactate and also Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score. All patients survived, and there were no neurologic sequelae.
Conclusions
Patients admitted during the pandemic period were admitted with more severe DKA and had higher PRISM III scores. During the pandemic period, there was an increase in the incidence of DKA in the participating center compared to that before the pandemic.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Covid 19 and diabetes in children: advances and strategies
    Zhaoyuan Wu, Jinling Wang, Rahim Ullah, Minghao Chen, Ke Huang, Guanping Dong, Junfen Fu
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pediatrics
Characteristics and timing of mortality in children dying in pediatric intensive care: a 5-year experience
Edin Botan, Emrah Gün, Emine Kübra Şden, Cansu Yöndem, Anar Gurbanov, Burak Balaban, Fevzi Kahveci, Hasan Özen, Hacer Uçmak, Ali Genco Gençay, Tanil Kendirli
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):644-653.   Published online November 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00395
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  • 107 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), where children with critical illnesses are treated, require considerable manpower and technological infrastructure in order to keep children alive and free from sequelae. Methods: In this retrospective comparative cohort study, hospital records of patients aged 1 month to 18 years who died in the study PICU between January 2015 and December 2019 were reviewed. Results: A total of 2,781 critically ill children were admitted to the PICU. The mean±standard deviation age of 254 nonsurvivors was 64.34±69.48 months. The mean PICU length of stay was 17 days (range, 1–205 days), with 40 children dying early (<1 day of PICU admission). The majority of nonsurvivors (83.9%) had comorbid illnesses. Children with early mortality were more likely to have neurological findings (62.5%), hypotension (82.5%), oliguria (47.5%), acidosis (92.5%), coagulopathy (30.0%), and cardiac arrest (45.0%) and less likely to have terminal illnesses (52.5%) and chronic illnesses (75.6%). Children who died early had a higher mean age (81.8 months) and Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score (37). In children who died early, the first three signs during ICU admission were hypoglycemia in 68.5%, neurological symptoms in 43.5%, and acidosis in 78.3%. Sixty-seven patients needed continuous renal replacement therapy, 51 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and 10 underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: We found that rates of neurological findings, hypotension, oliguria, acidosis, coagulation disorder, and cardiac arrest and PRISM III scores were higher in children who died early compared to those who died later.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Descriptive and Clinical Characteristics of Nonsurvivors in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Turkey: 6 Years of Experience
    Zeynep Karakaya, Merve Boyraz, Seyma Koksal Atis, Servet Yuce, Muhterem Duyu
    Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between mortality and critical events within 48 hours of transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit
    Huan Liang, Kyle A. Carey, Priti Jani, Emily R. Gilbert, Majid Afshar, L. Nelson Sanchez-Pinto, Matthew M. Churpek, Anoop Mayampurath
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pediatrics
Incidence and associated factors of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome using the VSCAREMD model
Paweethida Tippayawong, Chanapai Chaiyakulsil
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):627-635.   Published online October 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00234
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The VSCAREMD model is used for evaluating vaccination, sleep, and parental care burden, which includes daily activity and social interaction, rehabilitation requirements, hearing, mood, and development. It has been proposed to detect post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) in children. This study aimed to outline the incidence of PICS in children using the VSCAREMD model and to describe the associated factors. Methods: All children ages 1 month to 15 years and admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 48 hours were evaluated using the VSCAREMD model within 1 week of intensive care discharge. Abnormal findings were assorted into four domains: physical, cognitive, mental, and social. Descriptive statistics were performed using chi-square, univariate, and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 78 of 95 children (82.1%) had at least one abnormal domain. Physical, cognitive, mental, and social morbidity were found in 64.2%, 26.3%, 13.7%, and 38.9% of the children, respectively. Prolonged intensive care unit stay greater than 7 days was associated with dysfunction in physical (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–11.00), cognitive (aOR, 10.11; 95% CI, 3.01–33.89), and social domains (aOR, 5.01; 95% CI, 2.01–12.73). Underlying medical conditions were associated with cognitive (aOR, 13.63; 95% CI, 2.64– 70.26) and social morbidity (aOR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.06–7.47). Conclusions: The incidence of PICS using the VSCAREMD model was substantially high and associated with prolonged intensive care. This model could help evaluate PICS in children.
Pediatrics
Clinical implications of discrepancies in predicting pediatric mortality between Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2
Eui Jun Lee, Bongjin Lee, You Sun Kim, Yu Hyeon Choi, Young Ho Kwak, June Dong Park
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):454-461.   Published online July 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01480
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 (PIM 3) and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 (PELOD-2) are validated tools for predicting mortality in children. Research suggests that these tools may have different predictive performance depending on patient group characteristics. Therefore, we designed this study to identify the factors that make the mortality rates predicted by the tools different.
Methods
This retrospective study included patients (<18 years) who were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit from July 2017 to May 2019. After defining the predicted mortality of PIM 3 minus the predicted mortality rate of PELOD-2 as “difference in mortality prediction,” the clinical characteristics significantly related to this were analyzed using multivariable regression analysis. Predictive performance was analyzed through the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC).
Results
In total, 945 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 3.0 [0.0–8.0] years; girls, 44.7%) were analyzed. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revealed AUROCs of 0.889 (χ2=10.187, P=0.313) and 0.731 (χ2=6.220, P=0.183) of PIM 3 and PELOD-2, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that oxygen saturation, partial pressure of CO2, base excess, platelet counts, and blood urea nitrogen levels were significant factors. Patient condition-related factors such as cardiac bypass surgery, seizures, cardiomyopathy or myocarditis, necrotizing enterocolitis, cardiac arrest, leukemia or lymphoma after the first induction, bone marrow transplantation, and liver failure were significantly related (P<0.001).
Conclusions
Both tools predicted observed mortality well; however, caution is needed in interpretation as they may show different prediction results in relation to specific clinical characteristics.
Pediatric
Effects of the presence of a pediatric intensivist on treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit
Jung Eun Kwon, Da Eun Roh, Yeo Hyang Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(2):87-92.   Published online May 12, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00752
  • 4,331 View
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
There are few studies on the effect of intensivist staffing in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in Korea. We aimed to evaluate the effect of pediatric intensivist staffing on treatment outcomes in a Korean hospital PICU.
Methods
We analyzed two time periods according to pediatric intensivist staffing: period 1, between November 2015 to January 2017 (no intensivist staffing, n=97) and period 2, between February 2017 to February 2018 (intensivists staffing, n=135).
Results
Median age at admission was 5.4 years (range, 0.7–10.3 years) in period 1 and 3.6 years (0.2–5.1 years) in period 2 (P=0.013). The bed occupancy rate decreased in period 2 (75%; 73%–88%) compared to period 1 (89%; 81%–94%; P=0.015). However, the monthly bed turnover rate increased in period 2 (2.2%; 1.9%–2.7%) compared to period 1 (1.5%, 1.1%– 1.7%; P=0.005). In both periods, patients with chronic neurologic illness were the most common. Patients with cardiovascular problems were more prevalent in period 2 than period 1 (P=0.008). Daytime admission occurred more frequently in period 2 than period 1 (63% vs. 39%, P<0.001). The length of PICU stay, parameters related with mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy, and pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score were not different between periods. Sudden cardiopulmonary resuscitations occurred in two cases during period 1, but no case occurred during period 2.
Conclusions
Pediatric intensivist staffing in the PICU may affect efficient ICU operations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The impact of pediatric intensivists on the management of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis in pediatric intensive care units
    Ah Young Choi, Esther Park
    BMC Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of staffing model conversion from a mandatory critical care consultation model to a closed unit model in the medical intensive care unit
    Sung Jun Ko, Jaeyoung Cho, Sun Mi Choi, Young Sik Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Jinwoo Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Robert Jeenchen Chen
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(10): e0259092.     CrossRef
  • Intensivists in the pediatric intensive care unit: conductors for better operational efficiency
    June Dong Park
    Acute and Critical Care.2020; 35(2): 115.     CrossRef
Case Report
Neurology/Pulmonary
Extensive and Progressive Cerebral Infarction after Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection
Yu Hyeon Choi, Hyung Joo Jeong, Bongjin Lee, Hong Yul An, Eui Jun Lee, June Dong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2017;32(2):211-217.   Published online December 29, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.00283
  • 6,990 View
  • 172 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute cerebral infarctions are rare in children; however they can occur as a complication of a Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection due to direct invasion, vasculitis, or a hypercoagulable state. We report on the case of a 5-year-old boy who had an extensive stroke in multiple cerebrovascular territories 10 days after the diagnosis of MP infection. Based on the suspicion that the cerebral infarction was associated with a macrolide-resistant MP infection, the patient was treated with levofloxacin, methyl-prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and enoxaparin. Despite this medical management, cerebral vascular narrowing progressed and a decompressive craniectomy became necessary for the patient’s survival. According to laboratory tests, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical manifestations, the cerebral infarction in this case appeared to be due to the combined effects of hypercoagulability and cytokine-induced vascular inflammation.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Stroke associated with Mycoplasma hominis infection: a case report
    Anthoula C. Tsolaki, Galaktion Konstantinidis, Stavroula Koukou, Fotini Michali, Despina Georgiadou, Thomas Tegos, Nikolaos D. Michalis
    Journal of Medical Case Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thrombosis associated with mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (Review)
    Jingwei Liu, Yumei Li
    Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Multiple anatomic sites of infarction in a pediatric patient with M. pneumoniae infection, a case report
    Devon W. Hahn, Claire E. Atkinson, Matthew Le
    BMC Pediatrics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Hematology/Pediatric
Delta Neutrophil Index as a Prognostic Marker in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
In Suk Sol, Hyun Bin Park, Min Jung Kim, Seo Hee Yoon, Yoon Hee Kim, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(4):351-358.   Published online November 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.00171
  • 8,758 View
  • 181 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The delta neutrophil index (DNI) is a useful marker for diagnosing and predicting the prognosis of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of DNI as a prognostic marker in patients within the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), as well as its association with other prognostic factors.
Methods
A total of 516 children admitted to Severance Children’s Hospital PICU from December 2009 to February 2015 were analyzed. DNI was measured on the day of PICU admission. Mortality was defined as death within 28 days following PICU admission.
Results
The median value of DNI was 1.2% (interquartile range [IQR] 0-4.3%) in the survivor group and 9.5% (IQR 2.3-20.8%) in the non-survivor group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). DNI was significantly positively correlated with ICU scores such as Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III, as well as with C-reactive protein and lactate levels. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of DNI for mortality was 0.748 (95% CI: 0.687-0.808) and the cut-off value was 4.95%.
Conclusions
The initial DNI level can be considered a useful indicator for predicting prognosis in PICU patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Performance Comparison of Procalcitonin, Delta Neutrophil Index, C-Reactive Protein, and Serum Amyloid A Levels in Patients with Hematologic Diseases
    Jooyoung Cho, Jong-Han Lee, Dong Hyun Lee, Juwon Kim, Young Uh
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(7): 1213.     CrossRef
  • Potential and promising marker for serious bacterial infections in children: Delta neutrophil index
    Metin Yigit, Aslinur Ozkaya‐Parlakay, Naci Yilmaz, Ozhan Akyol, Belgin Gulhan, Saliha Kanik Yuksek, Basak Yalcin Burhan, Enes K Kilic, Cuneyt Karagol
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health.2022; 58(9): 1623.     CrossRef
  • Delta Neutrophil Index as a Diagnostic Marker of Neonatal Sepsis
    Nuriye Asli Melekoglu, Seyma Yasar, Mehmet Keskin
    Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases.2021; 16(03): 099.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic value of the delta neutrophil index in pediatric cardiac arrest
    Seo Hee Yoon, Eun Ju Lee, Jinae Lee, Moon Kyu Kim, Jong Gyun Ahn
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Report
Pyriform Sinus Perforation in a Child after Falling with a Spoon Handle in the Mouth
Joongbum Cho, Mi Ran Park, Jihyun Kim, Han Sin Jeong, Kangmo Ahn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(3):214-217.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.3.214
  • 2,640 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pyriform sinus perforation is uncommon in children and most cases are secondary to iatrogenic causes such as endotracheal intubations. Due to this rarity, the management of these injuries is controversial. We report a case of pyriform sinus perforation in a 14-month-old boy who fell down with a spoon handle in the mouth and was successfully treated by transoral laryngomicrosurgery. Two hours after falling down, the patient had breathing difficulties and started vomiting. A chest X-ray showed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastium. Esophagogram revealed leakage of contrast media at the hypopharynx. Although air leakage was reduced the next day, his fever became frequent even with conservative management of antibiotics. On the 4th hospital day, closure of pyriform sinus perforation was done by transoral laryngomicrosurgery. The patient became apyrexial by the 2nd post-operative day. On the 21th hospital day, the child was able to consume food orally without problems and was allowed to go home.
Original Articles
Usefulness of Thrombocytopenia and Changes in Platelet Counts as Prognostic Markers in Pediatric Intensive Care Units
Yoon Hee Kim, Hyun Bin Park, Min Jung Kim, Hwan Soo Kim, Hee Seon Lee, Yoon Ki Han, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn, Kyu Earn Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(2):93-100.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.2.93
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  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Thrombocytopenia has been shown to be a useful predictor of mortality in adult intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study is to assess whether the level of platelet count at ICU admission and the changes in platelet counts can predict mortality in the pediatric ICU (PICU).
METHODS
Platelet counts were checked daily for at least 4 days in a total of 303 children who were admitted to the ICU. We compared the initial platelet counts and changes in platelet counts between survivors and non-survivors. A multivariable logistic regression model, a receiver operating characteristic curve and a linear mixed model were used.
RESULTS
The initial platelet count was significantly lower in non-survivors when compared to survivors. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that platelet count <120 x 10(9)/L (Odds ratio, 4.913; 95% confidence interval 2.451-9.851; p < 0.0001) was an independent predictor of mortality. In the case of children with thrombocytopenia (<120 x 10(9)/L) at admission to the ICU, the platelet counts increased serially in survivors, whereas non-survivors maintained their decreased platelet counts. In the case of children without thrombocytopenia, the platelet counts decreased most on day 3 in non-survivors.
CONCLUSIONS
At admission to the ICU, thrombocytopenia defined as a platelet count <120 x 10(9)/L can be a useful predictor of mortality in children. In children who had initial thrombocytopenia, the serial increase of platelet counts can be related to increased survival, whereas in children who did not have initial thrombocytopenia, more than a 10% decrease of platelet counts on day 3 can be related to mortality.
Low Blood Selenium Concentrations in Critically Ill Children with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Respiratory Dysfunction
Young A Kim, Eun Ju Ha, Won Kyoung Jhang, Seong Jong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(2):86-92.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.2.86
  • 2,494 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Selenium is an essential trace-element with antioxidant and immunological function. We studied the relationship between blood selenium concentrations, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and organ dysfunctions in critically ill children.
METHODS
This was a retrospective, observational study of the blood selenium concentrations of critically ill children at the time of a pediatric intensive care unit admission.
RESULTS
A total of 62 patients with a median age of 18 (5-180) months were included in this study. The mean of blood selenium concentration (microg/dl) was 8.49 +/- 2.42. The platelet count (r = -0.378) and PaCO2 (r = -0.403) showed negative correlations with blood selenium concentration, while PaO2/FiO2 (r = 0.359) and PaO2 (r = 0.355) showed positive correlations (p < 0.05, for all variables). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patients with SIRS than in those patients without SIRS (8.08 +/- 2.42 vs. 9.45 +/- 2.02, p = 0.011). Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock had showed significantly lower blood selenium concentrations than those without SIRS (7.03 +/- 2.73 vs. 9.45 +/- 2.02, p = 0.042). Patients with PaO2/FiO2 < or = 300 had lower blood selenium concentrations than those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 (7.90 +/- 2.43 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patient with PaO2/FiO2 < or = 200 than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 (7.64 +/- 2.76 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or respiratory dysfunction showed significantly low blood selenium concentrations.
Case Report
Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema in Children Infected with H1N1 Virus: A Case Report
Bo Geum Choi, Hye Jung Yun, Yeo Hyang Kim, Myung Chul Hyun
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(3):155-158.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.3.155
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition in children which is triggered by respiratory infection and inflammation, although it occurs most commonly in asthmatics. It is caused by alveolar rupture and dissection of air into the mediastinum and hilum, and the prognosis is usually benign. We report two cases of SPM and subcutaneous emphysema complicating pneumonia in children with severe H1N1 infection. The patients were admitted to the intensive care unit and treated with oxygen, inhalation of a bronchodilator, intravenous systemic corticosteroid (methyprednisolone, 2 mg/kg/day for 5 days) and antibiotics, together with antiviral therapy. On day 4 after admission, there was no further evidence of SPM. SPM associated with severe H1N1 infection in children resolves with aggressive supportive care, without progression to pneumothorax. We should remain aware of this air leak complication in children with severe respiratory infection.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care