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Original Articles
Pulmonary
The role of ROX index–based intubation in COVID-19 pneumonia: a cross-sectional comparison and retrospective survival analysis
Sara Vergis, Sam Philip, Vergis Paul, Manjit George, Nevil C Philip, Mithu Tomy
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(2):182-189.   Published online May 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00206
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure who experience delayed initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation have poor outcomes. The lack of objective measures to define the timing of intubation is an area of concern. We investigated the effect of timing of intubation based on respiratory rate oxygenation (ROX) index on the outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia.
Methods
This was a retrospective cross-sectional study performed in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kerala, India. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were intubated were grouped into early intubation (within 12 hours of ROX index <4.88) or delayed intubation (12 hours or more hours after ROX <4.88).
Results
A total of 58 patients was included in the study after exclusions. Among them, 20 patients were intubated early, and 38 patients were intubated 12 hours after ROX index <4.88. The mean age of the study population was 56.8±13.7 years, and 55.0% of the patients were male; diabetes mellitus (48.3%) and hypertension (50.0%) were the most common comorbidities. The early intubation group had 88.2% successful extubation, while only 11.8% of the delayed group had successful extubation (P<0.001). Survival was also significantly more frequent in the early intubation group.
Conclusions
Early intubation within 12 hours of ROX index <4.88 was associated with improved extubation and survival in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
Pulmonary
Characteristics and outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the intensive care unit due to acute hypercapnic respiratory failure
Türkay Akbaş, Harun Güneş
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):49-56.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01011
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The study aimed to describe the clinical course, outcomes, and prognostic factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods: This retrospective study involved patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to COPD of any cause admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) support between December 2015 and February 2020. Results: One hundred patients were evaluated. The main causes of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure were bronchitis, pneumonia, and heart failure. The patients’ mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 23.0±7.2, and their IMV rate was 43%. ICU, in-hospital, and 90-day mortality rates were 21%, 29%, and 39%, respectively. Non-survivors had more pneumonia, shock within the first 24 hours of admission, IMV, vasopressor use, and renal replacement therapy, along with higher APACHE II scores, lower admission albumin levels and PaO2/ FiO2 ratios, and longer ICU and hospital stays than survivors. Logistic regression analysis identified APACHE II score (odds ratio [OR], 1.157; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.317; P=0.026), admission PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR, 0.989; 95% CI, 0.978–0.999; P=0.046), and vasopressor use (OR, 8.827; 95% CI, 1.650–47.215; P=0.011) as predictors of ICU mortality. APACHE II score (OR, 1.099; 95% CI, 1.021–1.182; P=0.011) and admission albumin level (OR, 0.169; 95% CI, 0.056–0.514; P=0.002) emerged as predictors of 90-day mortality. Conclusions: APACHE II scores, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, vasopressor use, and albumin levels are significant short-term mortality predictors in severely ill COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • COPD Exacerbation: Why It Is Important to Avoid ICU Admission
    Irene Prediletto, Gilda Giancotti, Stefano Nava
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(10): 3369.     CrossRef
Infection
Predicting factors associated with prolonged intensive care unit stay of patients with COVID-19
Won Ho Han, Jae Hoon Lee, June Young Chun, Young Ju Choi, Youseok Kim, Mira Han, Jee Hee Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):41-48.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01235
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Predicting the length of stay (LOS) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is essential for efficient use of ICU resources. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 based on their clinical care and determined the predictive factors associated with prolonged LOS. Methods: We included 96 COVID-19 patients who received oxygen therapy at a high-flow nasal cannula level or above after ICU admission during March 2021 to February 2022. The demographic characteristics at the time of ICU admission and results of severity analysis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II), blood tests, and ICU treatments were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Additionally, blood tests (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and the PaO2 to FiO2 ratio [P/F ratio]) were performed on days 3 and 5 of ICU admission to identify factors associated with prolonged LOS. Results: Univariable analyses showed statistically significant results for SOFA score at the time of ICU admission, C-reactive protein level, high-dose steroids, mechanical ventilation (MV) care, continuous renal replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and prone position. Multivariable analysis showed that MV care and P/F ratio on hospital day 5 were independent factors for prolonged ICU LOS. For D-dimer, no significant variation was observed at admission; however, after days 3 and 5 days of admission, significant between-group variation was detected. Conclusions: MV care and P/F ratio on hospital day 5 are independent factors that can predict prolonged LOS for COVID-19 patients.
Review Article
Pulmonary
Asynchronies during invasive mechanical ventilation: narrative review and update
Santiago Nicolás Saavedra, Patrick Valentino Sepúlveda Barisich, José Benito Parra Maldonado, Romina Belén Lumini, Alberto Gómez-González, Adrián Gallardo
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):491-501.   Published online November 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01158
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Invasive mechanical ventilation is a frequent therapy in critically ill patients in critical care units. To achieve favorable outcomes, patient and ventilator interaction must be adequate. However, many clinical situations could attempt against this principle and generate a mismatch between these two actors. These asynchronies can lead the patient to worst outcomes; that is why it is vital to recognize and treat these entities as soon as possible. Early detection and recognition of the different asynchronies could favor the reduction of the days of mechanical ventilation, the days of hospital stay, and intensive care and improve clinical results.

Citations

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  • Patient Self-Inflicted Lung Injury—A Narrative Review of Pathophysiology, Early Recognition, and Management Options
    Peter Sklienka, Michal Frelich, Filip Burša
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(4): 593.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Pulmonary
Agreement between two methods for assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation
Emanuelle Olympia Silva Ribeiro, Rik Gosselink, Lizandra Eveline da Silva Moura, Raissa Farias Correia, Wagner Souza Leite, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Araújo, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, Daniella Cunha Brandão, Shirley Lima Campos
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):592-600.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00325
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Respiratory muscle strength in patients with an artificial airway is commonly assessed as the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and is measured using analogue or digital manometers. Recently, new electronic loading devices have been proposed to measure respiratory muscle strength. This study evaluates the agreement between the MIPs measured by a digital manometer and those according to an electronic loading device in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Methods: In this prospective study, the standard MIP was obtained using a protocol adapted from Marini, in which repetitive inspiratory efforts were performed against an occluded airway with a one-way valve and were recorded with a digital manometer for 40 seconds (MIPDM). The MIP measured using the electronic loading device (MIPELD) was obtained from repetitively tapered flow resistive inspirations sustained for at least 2 seconds during a 40-second test. The agreement between the results was verified by a Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A total of 39 subjects (17 men, 55.4±17.7 years) was enrolled. Although a strong correlation between MIPDM and MIPELD (R=0.73, P<0.001) was observed, the Bland-Altman analysis showed a high bias of –47.4 (standard deviation, 22.3 cm H2O; 95% confidence interval, –54.7 to –40.2 cm H2O). Conclusions: The protocol of repetitively tapering flow resistive inspirations to measure the MIP with the electronic loading device is not in agreement with the standard protocol using one-way valve inspiratory occlusion when applied in poorly cooperative patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation.
Pulmonary
An algorithm to predict the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: the experience in Sao Paulo
Eduardo Atsushi Osawa, Alexandre Toledo Maciel
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):580-591.   Published online September 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00283
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
We aimed to characterize patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with COVID-19 admitted to a private network in Sao Paulo, Brazil from March to October 2020. Patients were compared in three subgroups: non-intensive care unit (ICU) admission (group A), ICU admission without receiving IMV (group B) and IMV requirement (group C). We developed logistic regression algorithm to identify predictors of IMV. Results: We analyzed 1,650 patients, the median age was 53 years (42–65) and 986 patients (59.8%) were male. The median duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was 7 days (5–9) and the main comorbidities were hypertension (42.4%), diabetes (24.2%) and obesity (15.8%). We found differences among subgroups in laboratory values obtained at hospital admission. The predictors of IMV (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were male (1.81 [1.11– 2.94], P=0.018), age (1.03 [1.02–1.05], P<0.001), obesity (2.56 [1.57–4.15], P<0.001), duration from symptom onset to admission (0.91 [0.85–0.98], P=0.011), arterial oxygen saturation (0.95 [0.92– 0.99], P=0.012), C-reactive protein (1.005 [1.002–1.008], P<0.001), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (1.046 [1.005–1.089], P=0.029) and lactate dehydrogenase (1.005 [1.003–1.007], P<0.001). The area under the curve values were 0.860 (95% CI, 0.829–0.892) in the development cohort and 0.801 (95% CI, 0.733–0.870) in the validation cohort. Conclusions: Patients had distinct clinical and laboratory parameters early in hospital admission. Our prediction model may enable focused care in patients at high risk of IMV.
Liver
Early mechanical ventilation for grade IV hepatic encephalopathy is associated with increased mortality among patients with cirrhosis: an exploratory study
Saad Saffo, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):355-362.   Published online August 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00528
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Unresponsive patients with toxic-metabolic encephalopathies often undergo endotracheal intubation for the primary purpose of preventing aspiration events. However, among patients with pre-existing systemic comorbidities, mechanical ventilation itself may be associated with numerous risks such as hypotension, aspiration, delirium, and infection. Our primary aim was to determine whether early mechanical ventilation for airway protection was associated with increased mortality in patients with cirrhosis and grade IV hepatic encephalopathy.
Methods
The National Inpatient Sample was queried for hospital stays due to grade IV hepatic encephalopathy among patients with cirrhosis between 2016 and 2019. After applying our exclusion criteria, including cardiopulmonary failure, data from 1,975 inpatient stays were analyzed. Patients who received mechanical ventilation within 2 days of admission were compared to those who did not. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with in-hospital mortality.
Results
Of 162 patients who received endotracheal intubation during the first 2 hospital days, 64 (40%) died during their hospitalization, in comparison to 336 (19%) of 1,813 patients in the comparator group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, mechanical ventilation was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in our primary analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.14–4.20; P<0.001) and in all sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions
Mechanical ventilation for the sole purpose of airway protection among patients with cirrhosis and grade IV hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Future studies are necessary to confirm and further characterize our findings.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Using machine learning methods to predict 28-day mortality in patients with hepatic encephalopathy
    Zhe Zhang, Jian Wang, Wei Han, Li Zhao
    BMC Gastroenterology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pulmonary
The role of diaphragmatic thickness measurement in weaning prediction and its comparison with rapid shallow breathing index: a single-center experience
Lokesh Kumar Lalwani, Manjunath B Govindagoudar, Pawan Kumar Singh, Mukesh Sharma, Dhruva Chaudhry
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):347-354.   Published online July 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00108
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is commonly managed with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The majority of the time that a patient spends on IMV is in the process of weaning. Prediction of the weaning outcome is of paramount importance, as untimely/delayed extubation is associated with a high risk of mortality. Diaphragmatic ultrasonography is a promising tool in the intensive care unit, and its utility in predicting the success of weaning remains understudied.
Methods
In this prospective-observational study, we recruited 54 ARF patients on IMV, along with 50 healthy controls. During a spontaneous breathing trial, all subjects underwent diaphragmatic ultrasonography along with a rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) assessment.
Results
The mean age was 41.8±17.0 and 37.6±10.5 years among the cases and control group, respectively. Demographic variables were broadly similar in the two groups. The most common cause of ARF was obstructive airway disease. The average duration of IMV was 5.41±2.81 days. Out of 54 subjects, 45 were successfully weaned, while nine patients failed weaning. Age, body mass index, and severity of disease were similar in the successful and failed weaning patients. The sensitivity in predicting successful weaning of percent change in diaphragmatic thickness (Δtdi%) >29.71% was high (93.33%), while specificity was 66.67%. The sensitivity and specificity of mean diaphragmatic thickness (tdi) end-expiratory >0.178 cm was 60.00% and 77.78%, respectively. RSBI at 1 minute of <93.75 had an equally high sensitivity (93.33%) but a lower specificity (22.22%). Similar results were also found for RSBI measured at 5 minutes.
Conclusions
During the weaning assessment, the purpose is to minimize both premature as well as delayed extubation. We found that diaphragmatic ultrasonography, in particular Δtdi%, is better than RSBI in predicting weaning outcomes.
Policy/Pulmonary
Association between the National Health Insurance coverage benefit extension policy and clinical outcomes of ventilated patients: a retrospective study
Wanho Yoo, Saerom Kim, Soohan Kim, Eunsuk Jeong, Kwangha Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):53-60.   Published online February 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01389
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to investigate the association between the Korean National Health Insurance coverage benefit extension policy and clinical outcomes of patients who were ventilated owing to various respiratory diseases. Methods: Data from 515 patients (male, 69.7%; mean age, 69.8±12.1 years; in-hospital mortality rate, 28.3%) who were hospitalized in a respiratory intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed over 5 years. Results: Of total enrolled patients, 356 (69.1%) had one benefit items under this policy during their hospital stay. They had significantly higher medical expenditure (total: median, 23,683 vs. 12,742 U.S. dollars [USD], P<0.001), out-of-pocket (median, 5,932 vs. 4,081 USD; P<0.001), and a lower percentage of out-of-pocket medical expenditure relative to total medical expenditure (median, 26.0% vs. 32.2%; P<0.001). Patients without benefit items associated with higher in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.794; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.980–3.941; P<0.001). In analysis of patients with benefit items, patients with three items (“cancer,” “tuberculosis,” and “disability”) had significantly lower out-of-pocket medical expenditure (3,441 vs. 6,517 USD, P<0.001), and a lower percentage of out-of-pocket medical expenditure relative to total medical expenditure (17.2% vs. 27.7%, P<0.001). They were associated with higher in-hospital mortality (HR, 3.904; 95% CI, 2.533–6.039; P<0.001). Conclusions: Our study showed patients with benefit items had more medical resources and associated improved in-hospital survival. Patients with the aforementioned three benefit items had lower out-of-pocket medical expenditure due to the implementation of this policy, but higher in-hospital mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of socioeconomic status, insurance status, and insurance coverage benefits on mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit
    Moo Suk Park
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(1): 118.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Under or overpressure: an audit of endotracheal cuff pressure monitoring at the tertiary care center
Biju Viswambharan, Manjini Jeyaram Kumari, Gopala Krishnan, Lakshmi Ramamoorthy
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):374-379.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00024
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving intervention for critically ill patients but can produce the major complication of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Inappropriately inflated endotracheal tubes cause potential harm due to high or low pressure; this can be prevented through monitoring protocols.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of 348 cuff pressure readings was performed with intubated and mechanically ventilated patients to evaluate the exact proportion of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) where the cuff pressure is optimal and to identify the ICUs where device-based monitoring is available to produce a lower proportion of sub-optimal cuff pressure cases. Every three days, cuff pressure was assessed with a handheld cuff pressure manometer. The corresponding VAP rates of those ICUs were obtained from the hospital infection control department.
Results
Cuff pressure of 40.2% was the lower cutoff for the high category, that of optimal was 35.3%, and the highest cutoff of sub-optimal was 24.4%. This study also showed ICUs that had cuff pressure monitoring devices and protocols. Active measurement protocols had a higher proportion of optimal cuff pressure (58.5%) and a lower proportion of sub-optimal and high cuff pressure (19.5% and 22.0%) compared to ICUs with no device-based monitoring protocols. Furthermore, the VAP rate of ICUs exhibited a weak positive correlation with sub-optimal cuff pressure.
Conclusions
Device-based cuff pressure monitoring is essential in maintaining adequate cuff pressure but often is inadequate, resulting in high readings. Therefore, this study suggests that device-based cuff pressure monitoring be practiced.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy of using an intravenous catheter to repair damaged expansion lines of endotracheal tubes and laryngeal masks
    Tingting Wang, Jiang Wang, Yao Lu, Xuesheng Liu, Shangui Chen
    BMC Anesthesiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Nephrology
COVID-19–induced acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: epidemiology, risk factors, and outcome
Ahlem Trifi, Sami Abdellatif, Yosri Masseoudi, Asma Mehdi, Oussama Benjima, Eya Seghir, Fatma Cherif, Yosr Touil, Bedis Jeribi, Foued Daly, Cyrine Abdennebi, Adel Ammous, Salah Ben Lakhal
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):308-316.   Published online November 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00934
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The kidney represents a potential target for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Acute kidney injury (AKI) can occur through several mechanisms and includes intrinsic tissue injury by direct viral invasion. Clinical data about the clinical course of AKI are lacking. We aimed to investigate the proportion, risk factors, and prognosis of AKI in critical patients affected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Methods
A case/control study conducted in two intensive care units of a tertiary teaching hospital from September to December 2020.
Results
Among 109 patients, 75 were male (69%), and the median age was 64 years (interquartile range [IQR], 57–71 years); 48 (44%) developed AKI within 4 days (IQR, 1–9). Of these 48 patients, 11 (23%), 9 (19%), and 28 (58%) were classified as stage 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Eight patients received renal replacement therapy. AKI patients were older and had more frequent sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and rhabdomyolysis; higher initial urea and creatinine; more marked inflammatory syndrome and hematological disorders; and required more frequent mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. An elevated level of D-dimers (odds ratio [OR], 12.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–85) was an independent factor of AKI. Sepsis was near to significance (OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 0.94–28; P=0.058). Renal recovery was identified in three patients. AKI, hypoxemia with the ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and the inspiratory concentration of oxygen <70, and vasopressors were identified as mortality factors.
Conclusions
AKI occurred in almost half the patients with critical COVID-19. A high level of D-dimers and sepsis contributed significantly to its development. AKI significantly worsened the prognosis in these patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized with stress cardiomyopathy: A nationwide analysis
    Adrija Hajra, Aaqib Malik, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Akshay Goel, Ameesh Isath, Rahul Gupta, Suraj Krishnan, Devesh Rai, Chayakrit Krittanawong, Salim S. Virani, Gregg C. Fonarow, Carl J. Lavie
    Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.2023; 76: 25.     CrossRef
  • Predictive Values of Procalcitonin and Presepsin for Acute Kidney Injury and 30-Day Hospital Mortality in Patients with COVID-19
    Sin-Young Kim, Dae-Young Hong, Jong-Won Kim, Sang-O Park, Kyeong-Ryong Lee, Kwang-Je Baek
    Medicina.2022; 58(6): 727.     CrossRef
  • HYDROCORTISONE, ASCORBIC ACID, AND THIAMINE THERAPY DECREASE RENAL OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN MURINE SEPSIS
    John Kim, Allan Stolarski, Qiuyang Zhang, Katherine Wee, Daniel Remick
    Shock.2022; 58(5): 426.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Effects of high-flow nasal cannula in patients with mild to moderate hypercapnia: a prospective observational study
Kyung Hun Nam, Hyung Koo Kang, Sung-Soon Lee, So-Hee Park, Sung Wook Kang, Jea Jun Hwang, So Young Park, Won Young Kim, Hee Jung Suh, Eun Young Kim, Ga Jin Seo, Younsuck Koh, Sang-Bum Hong, Jin Won Huh, Chae-Man Lim
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(3):249-255.   Published online July 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.01102
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Evidence for using high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in hypercapnia is still limited. Most of the clinical studies had been conducted retrospectively, and there had been conflicting reports for the effects of HFNC on hypercapnia correction in prospective studies. Therefore, more evidence is needed to understand the effect of the HFNC in hypercapnia.
Methods
We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study after applying HFNC to 45 hospitalized subjects who had moderate hypercapnia (arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PaCO2], 43–70 mm Hg) without severe respiratory acidosis (pH <7.30). The primary outcome was a change in PaCO2 level in the first 24 hours of HFNC use. The secondary outcomes were changes in other parameters of arterial blood gas analysis, changes in respiration rates, and clinical outcomes.
Results
There was a significant decrease in PaCO2 in the first hour of HFNC application (-3.80 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6.35 to -1.24; P<0.001). Reduction of PaCO2 was more prominent in subjects who did not have underlying obstructive lung disease. There was a correction in pH, but no significant changes in respiratory rate, bicarbonate, and arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio. Mechanical ventilation was not required for 93.3% (42/45) of our study population.
Conclusions
We suggest that HFNC could be a safe alternative for oxygen delivery in hypercapnia patients who do not need immediate mechanical ventilation. With HFNC oxygenation, correction of hypercapnia could be expected, especially in patients who do not have obstructive lung diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Current status of treatment of acute respiratory failure in Korea
    Yong Jun Choi, Jae Hwa Cho
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(3): 124.     CrossRef
  • High-flow nasal cannula: Evaluation of the perceptions of various performance aspects among Chinese clinical staff and establishment of a multidimensional clinical evaluation system
    Ruoxuan Wen, Xingshuo Hu, Tengchen Wei, Kaifei Wang, Zhimei Duan, Zhanqi Zhao, Lixin Xie, Fei Xie
    Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Application Progress of HFNC in Respiratory Diseases
    迪 吴
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2022; 12(11): 10617.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Effectiveness of online versus in-person structured training program on arterial blood gas, electrolytes, and ventilatory management of critically ill patients
Gaurav Jain, Bhavna Gupta, Priyanka Gupta, Sagarika Panda, Sameer Sharma, Shalinee Rao
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(1):54-61.   Published online February 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00759
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Due to the risk of viral transmission during in-person training, a shift toward online platforms is imperative in the current pandemic. Therefore, we compared the effectiveness of an in-person interactive course with a structurally similar online course designed to improve cognitive skills among clinical health professionals in arterial blood gas analysis, management of electrolyte imbalances, and approaches to mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.
Methods
In an observational, outcome assessor-blinded, cohort trial, group A included participants enrolled prospectively in an online course, while group B included those who took part in an in-person course (retrospective arm). The primary objective was comparison of cognitive skills through a pre and post-test questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test.
Results
In total, 435 participants were analyzed in group A, while 99 participants were evaluated in group B. The mean pre-test score was 9.48±2.75 and 10.76±2.42, while the mean post-test score was 11.94±1.90 (passing rate, 64.6%) and 12.53±1.63 (passing rate, 73.3%) in groups A and B, respectively. Group B scored significantly higher in both pre-test (P=0.001) and post-test evaluations (P=0.004). The improvement in post-test score was significantly greater (P=0.001) in group A (2.46±2.22) compared to group B (1.77±1.76). The medical specialties fared better in group B, while surgical specialties scored higher in group A. The pre-test vs. post-test scores exhibited a moderate correlation in both groups (P<0.001). The feedback survey showed a Likert score >3.5 for most points in both groups.
Conclusions
The online teaching module exhibited a significant benefit in terms of participant sensitization and knowledge sharing.

Citations

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  • Health Care Simulation as a Training Tool for Epidemic Management
    Marcia A. Corvetto, Fernando R. Altermatt, Francisca Belmar, Eliana Escudero
    Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically Ill patients with COVID-19 in Northeast Ohio: low mortality and length of stay
Francois Abi Fadel, Mohammed Al-Jaghbeer, Sany Kumar, Lori Griffiths, Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaozhen Han, Robert Burton
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(4):242-248.   Published online October 12, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00619
  • 4,814 View
  • 267 Download
  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Published coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reports suggest higher mortality with increasing age and comorbidities. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and outcomes for all intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted across the Cleveland Clinic enterprise, a 10-hospital health care system in Northeast Ohio, serving more than 2.7 million people.
Methods
We analyzed the quality data registry for clinical characteristics and outcomes of all COVID-19-confirmed ICU admissions. Differences in outcomes from other health care systems and published cohorts from other parts of the world were delineated.
Results
Across our health care system, 495 COVID-19 patients were admitted from March 15 to June 1, 2020. Mean patient age was 67.3 years, 206 (41.6%) were females, and 289 (58.4%) were males. Mean Acute Physiology Score was 45.3, and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score was 60.5. In total, 215 patients (43.3%) were intubated for a mean duration of 9.2 days. Mean ICU and hospital length of stay were 7.4 and 13.9 days, respectively, while mean ICU and hospital mortality rates were 18.4% and 23.8%.
Conclusions
Our health care system cohort is the fourth largest to be reported. Lower ICU and hospital mortality and length of stay were seen compared to most other published reports. Better preparedness and state-level control of the surge in COVID-19 infections are likely the reasons for these better outcomes. Future research is needed to further delineate differences in mortality and length of stay across health care systems and over time.

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Review Article
Pulmonary
Critical Care before Lung Transplantation
Jin Gu Lee, Moo Suk Park, Su Jin Jeong, Song Yee Kim, Sungwon Na, Jeongmin Kim, Hyo Chae Paik
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(4):197-205.   Published online November 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00367
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Lung transplantation is widely accepted as the only viable treatment option for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, the imbalance between the number of suitable donor lungs available and the number of possible candidates often results in intensive care unit (ICU) admission for the latter. In the ICU setting, critical care is essential to keep these patients alive and to successfully bridge to lung transplantation. Proper management in the ICU is also one of the key factors supporting long-term success following transplantation. Critical care includes the provision of respiratory support such as mechanical ventilation (MV) and extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Accordingly, a working knowledge of the common critical care issues related to these unique patients and the early recognition and management of problems that arise before and after transplantation in the ICU setting are crucial for long-term success. In this review, we discuss the management and selection of candidates for lung transplantation as well as existing respiratory support strategies that involve MV and ECLS in the ICU setting.

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ACC : Acute and Critical Care