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Volume 20 (2); December 2005
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Review
Clinical Significance of Hypercapnia during Mechanical Ventilation
Younsuck Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):105-113.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Effects of Alfentanil on Hemodynamic and Catecholamine Responses to Laryngoscopy and Endobronchial Intubation in the Elderly
Kyung Yeon Yoo, Sung Su Chung, Myung Ha Yoon, Seong Wook Jeong, Jeong Il Choi, Chang Young Jeong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):114-120.
  • 1,259 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Endobronchial intubation should elicit significant circulatory responses. We examined the effects of alfentanil on hemodynamic and catecholamine responses to endobronchial intubation in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged over 60 years requiring endobronchial intubation were randomized into three groups of 20 patients each. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4~6 mg/kg followed by saline (placebo) or alfentanil 10 or 30microgram/kg given as a bolus over 30 s. Succinylcholine 1 mg/kg was given for neuromuscular block. Laryngoscopy and intubation were performed 1 min later. RESULTS: The intubation significantly increased systolic arterial pressure and heart rate. The maximum pressure changes from pre-intubation values in both alfentanil groups (58+/-27 and 33+/-30 mm Hg in 10 and 30microgram/kg, respectively) were significantly lower compared with that of 83+/-35 mm Hg in the control group. The tachycardiac response was not significantly affected by alfentanil 10microgram/kg, but attenuated by alfentanil 30microgram/kg. The plasma norepinephrine concentrations were increased, which was not affected by alfentanil 10microgram/kg, but was significantly attenuated by alfentanil 30microgram/kg. Both doses of alfentanil abolished the increase of plasma epinephrine concentrations. Three patients in the 30microgram/kg group received ephedrine for hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that endobronchial intubation elicited significant pressor response, and that alfentanil 30microgram/kg is more efficacious in attenuating the hemodynamic and catecholamine responses, although potential hypotension warrants a caution of its use, in elderly patients.
Original Articles
The Changes of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow according to Inhalational Anesthetic Agents after Transient Bilateral Carotid Artery Occlusion in the Rabbit
Hyeong Geun Joo, Hae Kyu Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):121-130.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a recognized complication of carotid endarterectomy, with a reported incidence of 0.3 to 1.2%. Monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may limit neurological damage. This study was planned to investigate the changes of rCBF according to inhalational anesthetic agents. METHODS: 2.40+/-0.04 kg weighed New Zealand White Rabbits were undergone transient brain ischemia by bilateral carotid artery ligation for 20 minutes. The rCBF was measured by Bowman Perfusion Monitor.
RESULTS
The value of rCBF in pre-ligation state was not significantly different among the three groups. rCBF in sevoflurane group was decreased to 46% of baseline value during ischemia and increased to 143% just after reperfusion. rCBFs in isoflurane and enflurane groups were abruptly increased instead of decrease like sevoflurane group. The values of rCBF was more increasing after reperfusion in isoflurane and enflurane groups. rCBFs in all groups were return to baseline value 10 minutes after reperfusion. CONCLUSIONS: This results was suggested that sevoflurane might be contributed to create a neurologic damage during ischemia and the hyperperfusion was seen in all three anesthetic agents. The clinical investigation may be needed to establish the value of this experiment.
Comparison of Auto-PEEP Levels Measured by End-expiratory Port Occlusion Method and Trapped Lung Volume
Jang Won Sohn, Chae Man Lim, Younsuck Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):131-135.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
There are several METHODS: for auto-PEEP measurement during mechanical ventilation. The end-expiratory port occlusion (EEPO) method is simple and easy. Theoretically, auto- PEEP level can be also calculated by using trapped lung volume and static compliance. However, the relationship between measured auto-PEEP by EEPO method and the calculated auto-PEEP has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to observe the relationship between the measured and the calculated auto-PEEP. METHODS: 15 patients with auto-PEEP during mechanical ventilation were included. Auto-PEEP was measured by EEPO method, and calculated by using a formula; trapped lung volume/static compliance. All of the patients were paralyzed during the study. If the measured auto-PEEP is higher than calculated auto-PEEP, this patient was included in `high group'; in the opposite case, `low group'. We compared respiratory mechanics between these two groups. RESULTS: Measured auto-PEEP was 9.60+/-2.82 cmH2O, and calculated auto-PEEP was 9.78+/-2.90 cmH2O. There was statistically significant relationship between measured and calculated auto-PEEP (r=0.81, p<0.01). There was no difference on respiratory mechanics between `high group' and `low group'. CONCLUSIONS: The auto-PEEP obtained by calculation with trapped lung volume and static compliance showed a good correlation with that of using EEPO method in the paralyzed patients.
The Effectiveness of Foot -Reflexo- Massage on the Postoperative Pain of Gastrectomy Patients
Houng Hwa Han, Young Ju Lee, Yun Jeong Chae, Jong Sin Eun, Hyun Ho Lee, Jee Won Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):136-143.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The objects of this study were to determine the effects of foot reflexo massage on the postoperative pain of the subtotal gastrectomy patients according to quasi-experimental research design, and to provide demonstrative data for using the foot reflexo massage as an intervention for pain nursing. METHODS: The foot reflexo massages were performed on 34 subtotal gastrectomy patients after informed consent was obtained. They were divided into two groups, i.e. control group (n=17) and experimental group (n=17). After 6 hours and 12 hours from the subtotal gastrectomy, the massage was carried out on each foot for 10 minutes twice. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was employed as the measurement tools of pain, and the degree of postoperative pain was measured through frequency of prn (pro re nata) analgesia in chart review. RESULTS: The experimental group with foot reflexo massage 6 hours after the operation have significantly less score of postoperative pain than the control group (5.76+/-0.83, 4.35+/-1.0, p=.000). The experimental group with foot reflexo massage 12 hours after the operation have significantly less score of postoperative pain than the control group (5.12+/-0.53, 3.00+/-1.17, p=.000). The experimental group with foot reflexo massage have significantly less frequency of prn analgesics than the control group from six hours to twelve hours after the operation (p=.004). CONCLUSIONS: It is considered foot reflexo massage is effective for reducing postoperative pain of subtotal gastrectomy patients, as well as useful for an immediate nursing intervention.
A Study on the Health-related Quality of Life after ICU Care
Min Young Kim, Yong Kyung Lee, Seo Rim Park, In Soon Hwang, Sook Ja Lee, Cheung Soo Shin
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):144-151.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
This study was designed to analyze the influences of ICU patients' experiences in the ICU setting and the effect of ICU patient families' stress derived from their needs and daily life stress on the patients' quality of life. METHODS: ICU patients' quality of life was evaluated with KQOLS surveying 144 patients alive. The data was classified into 2 groups according to severity of illness and analyzed with an ANOVA. With a t-test, comparative analysis was made to examine deficiency of responses on patient families' needs and patients' quality of life. RESULTS: The patients in the group of higher severity of illness showed lower quality of life. The APACHEII score had a negative correlation with all domains except health status change domain, health status perception domain, and spiritual domain. There was a negative correlation between patients' age and three domains of physical function, role limitation, and social function and a positive correlation between patients' hospital LOS and health status change domain. The families in the group of lower severity of illness showed higher level of deficiency of responses on their needs for medical treatment and nursing information, and emotional support. Also, patients' quality of life in lower daily life stress group was higher than that in higher stress group especially in psychological health domain. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that ICU patients `quality of life was influenced by not only medical factors but also psychosocial factors and suggest that multidimensional intervention plans are required for improving patients' quality of life and recovering their health.
Influence of Unmeasured Anions Identified by Stewart Principle on the Length of Postoperative Hospital Stay
Kyoung Min Lee, Sung Ho Seo, Seung Yun Lee, Jun Geol Lee, Tae Yop Kim, Ka young Rhee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):152-158.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Calculation of the base excess (BE) and the anion gap (AG) is commonly used to identify the presence and to analyze the cause of metabolic acidosis in critically ill patients. However, the calculation of BE assumes normal water content, electrolytes, and albumin, changes in these values will change the calculated BE. Calculation of the AG does not control for changes in albumin and cannot distinguish plasma concentration changes of negatively charged protein (albumin) from that of other anions. Based on Stewart's physicochemical principles, Gilfix et al developed equations to calculate the BE caused by unmeasured anions (BEua) taking into account changes in free water, chloride, albumin, and PCO2 that theoretically should reflect metabolic changes better than the less complete biochemical measurements. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of BEua and other variables on the length of postoperative hospital stay. METHODS: The data from 100 consecutive patients were collected prospectively in patients who underwent intra-abdominal operations under general anesthesia and admitted to the adult intensive care unit. All samples were routine samples taken from arterial lines postoperatively and analyzed for arterial blood gas, plasma electrolytes, inorganic phosphates and albumin concentrations. BEua was calculated from the equations developed by Gilfix et al. We also calculated AGNa, K (Na++K+-Cl--HCO3-) and AGNa (Na+-Cl--HCO3-). Correlations between the length of postoperative hospital stay and these variables were studied using linear regression analysis.
RESULTS
BEua and BE were significantly correlated with the length of ICU stay (r=0.295, p<0.01 and r=0.249, p<0.05). Neither AGNa, K nor AGNa was correlated with the length of ICU stay. Significant correlation was observed between the length of postoperative hospital stay and BEua (r=0.316, p<0.01), BE (r=0.288, p<0.01), AGNa, K (r=0.284, p<0.01), and AGNa (r=0.263, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study BEua was significantly correlated with the length of ICU stay and postoperative hospital stay compared with other variables. This finding suggests that BEua may be used as a more reliable predictor of outcome in ICU patients.
Subclavian Vein Catheterization by Using 24-Gauge Peripheral Angiocatheter in Pediatric Cadiovascular Surgical Patients
Jin Mo Kim, Young Ho Jang, Jae Hong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):159-164.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Central venous catheterization (CVP) often leads to unacceptable complications, especially in pediatrics. To reduce these complications, we modified the venipucture by using 24-gauge peripheral angiocatheter (24-AG) in pediatric patients. METHODS: A 24-AG attached to a 3 cc syringe instead of a thin-wall steel needle in the commercial CVP kit was inserted and advanced in the direction of the inmominate vein with 45degrees angle. When blood was observed in the syrige, the 24-AG was more advanced into the subclavian vein and the 24-AG stylet was removed. A J-guide wire was inserted through lumen of the angiocather. The following procedure was the same as the Sheldinger technique. RESULTS: 202 pediatric patients received subclavian venipuncture by the method mentioned above. The overall success rate was 96.5%. The rate of success for the first attempt was 85.6% and the average number of venipuncture was 1.3+/-0.1. The overall complications was 6.4%, including hematoma formation (1.5%), pneumothorax (1.5%), bleeding at the puncture site (1.0%), mild hemothorax (0.5%) and pleural puncture without pneumothorax (2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The subclavian venepuncture by using 24-gauge peripheral angiocatheter was reliable and useful technique in pediatric patients. The overall complications by this method was reduced compared to other reports.
Development and Experimental Evaluation of Respiratory Assist Device by Use of Right Thoracic Negative Pressure Ventilation
Joong Hwan Oh, Sang Hun Lee, Hyun Kyo Lim, Young Hee Lee, Sung Hoon Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):165-169.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A diaphragm pacing with electrical stimulation is a new respiratory assist device which has advantages over mechanical ventilation. Unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation makes uneven distribution of intrathoracic negative pressure and most likely relates to paradoxical motion of the diaphragm. Our purpose is to investigate a respiratory effect of right phrenic nerve pacing after thoracotomy compared with bilateral pacing. METHODS: Five dogs were examined under the general anesthesia. Right 5th intercostal space was opened. Two pacing leads were placed around the phrenic nerve and connected to the stimulator. Chest wall was closed after chest tube insertion. Ventilator was off without self respiration. Swan-Ganz catheter was introduced to the pulmonary artery, cardiac output, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Arterial blood gases (PO2 & PCO2), end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) and tidal volume were measured with nerve stimulation. Left phrenic nerve was managed as the same manner. RESULTS: Right phrenic nerve pacing resulted in a tidal volume of 186+/-5 ml, PETCO2 of 55.0+/-2.3 mmHg, Arterial PO2 of 115+/-12 mmHg, PCO2 of 59+/-4 mmHg, Cardiac output of 2.3+/-0.5 L/min, CVP of 12.0+/-2.3 mmHg, PCWP of 14.2+/-2.5 mmHg. Bilateral phrenic nerve pacing resulted in a tidal volume of 418+/-3 ml, PETCO2 of 47.0+/-2.7 mmHg, PO2 of 289+/-10 mmHg, PCO2 of 42+/-3 mmHg, Cardiac output of 3.1+/-0.4 L/min, CVP of 10.2+/-2.5 mmHg, PCWP of 14.5+/-2.7 mmHg. Right phrenic nerve pacing showed significantly lower tidal volume, PO2 and higher PETCO2 and arterial blood PCO2 (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Right phrenic nerve pacing plays a role to develop respiratory assist. However the effect is less than the bilateral pacing.
Case Reports
Vocal Cord Paralysis after the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: A Case Report
Kwang Su Kim, Seong Wook Jeong, Sang Hyun Kwak, Myung Ha Yoon, Kyung Yeon Yoo, Chang Young Jeong, Sung Su Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):170-173.
  • 1,423 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Surgical trauma has long been recognized as the most common cause of unilateral and bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We experienced a case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft. The patient was repeated intubation and extubation after operation in surgical intensive care unit. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed bilateral vocal cord paralysis in the patient. The patient recovered after permanent tracheotomy. We reported a case of vocal cord paralysis after coronary artery bypass graft.
Delayed Obstruction of Endotracheal Tube by Previously Aspirated Foreign Body: A Case Report
Sungsik Chon, Jinho Kim, Shin Ok Koh, Jung Goo Cho, In Soon Hwang, In Seon Jin
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):174-177.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute airway obstruction during endotracheal intubation status is embarrassing and critical situation which requires early diagnosis and immediate management. Endotracheal tube obstruction with foreign body is rare but a variety of objects have been reported. We present a case of endotracheal tube obstruction as a result of previous aspirated foreign body that moved from the bronchial tree into the endobroncheal tube.
Intracardiac Knotting of a Balloon-tipped, Flow-directed Pulmonary Artery Catheter: A Case Report
Bong Chul Choi, Mee Young Chung, Chang Jae Kim, Jun Seuk Chea, Byung Ho Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):178-182.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The occurrence of knots and loops is a potential hazard of a balloon-tipped, flow-directed pulmonary artery (PA) catheter placement if excessive catheter length is passed into the right atrium or ventricle. Knotting of a balloon-tipped, flow-directed PA catheter leading to difficulty in its removal is a rare but serious complication. A case of knotted catheter in right atrium in a patient undergoing aortic valve replacement is presented. By passing a spring guidewire into PA catheter, we have untied the loose knotted catheter under simple fluoroscopic guidance in the intensive care unit.
A Case of Respiratory Failure Caused by Gastropleural Fistula: A Case Report
Woo Hyun Cho, Dong Yup Ryu, Sung Yik Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Yun Seong Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):183-186.
  • 1,446 View
  • 44 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gastropleural fistula is a very rare disorder, caused by various conditions, such as trauma and postoperative complication, subphrenic abscess, malignancy, hiatal hernia. The major causes of the gastropleural fistula have changed from trauma and subphrenic abscess to postoperative complication of malignant disorders. We report a case of empyema that developed respiratory failure caused by gastropleural fistula in a middle age woman with review of related articles.
A Case of Pulmonary Edema which Developed after Difficult Endotracheal Intubation of Hunter Syndrome: A Case Report
Ha Jin Kim, Seok Hwa Yoon, Yoon Hee Kim, Hee Suk Yoon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):187-191.
  • 1,348 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hunter syndrome is one of the mucopolysaccharidoses, characterized by abnormal accumulation and deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the tissues of several organs which are known to complicate anaesthetic and airway management. We experienced a case of pulmonary edema which developed during induction of general anesthesia of Hunter syndrome after several attempts of intubation and airway obstruction.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care