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Volume 21 (1); June 2006
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Review
Biotrauma in Ventilator Induced Lung Injury
Sang Hyun Kwak, Seok Jai Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):1-7.
  • 1,527 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Alteration of Lung Mechanics Depending on Expiratory Sensitivity (ESENS) during Pressure Support Ventilation
Kwang Won Seo, Gyu Rak Chon, Jong Joon Ahn, Yangjin Jega, Sang Bum Hong, Chae Man Lim, Younsuck Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):8-16.
  • 3,267 View
  • 58 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To evaluate effects of 5 expiratory sensitivity (ESENS) levels (5%; 15%; 25%; 35%; 45%) on lung mechanics and the effects depending on the two P(0.1) levels (<3 cm H2O; > or =3 cm H2O).
METHODS
Prospective, randomized, physiologic study for intubated adult patients during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomly submitted to the 5 settings of ESENS in the Galileo ventilator (Galileo Gold, Hamilton Medical AG, Switzerland). Physiologic variables were continuously measured using a Bicore CP-100 pulmonary mechanics monitor (CP-100, Bicore, USA).
RESULTS
Thirteen patients, ten men and three women, with a mean age of 65.2+/-16.1 yr were studied. Tidal volume (V(T)) decreased significantly from ESENS 5% to 45%. With increasing levels of ESENS, respiratory rates (RR) steadily increased from ESENS 5% to 35% and 45%. Shallow breath index (F/V(T)) increased significantly from ESENS 5% to 45%. Inspiratory time (T(I)) decreased gradually significantly from ESENS 5% to 45%. RR and F/V(T) increased from ESENS 5% to 15% and 45% and V(T) decreased gradually in patients with P(0.1)<3 cm H2O group, but not in patients with P(0.1)> or =3 cm H2O.
CONCLUSIONS
The proper adjustment of expiratory sensitivity (ESENS) levels improved patient-ventilator synchrony and decreased respiratory rates and shallow breath index, especially in P(0.1)<3 cm H2O during PSV in ventilator weaning patients. Lower ESENS level would be more appropriate in terms of lung mechanics in patients with less than 3 cm H2O of P(0.1).
Original Articles
Diagnosis of Acid-base Imbalance by Stewart's Physicochemical Approach and Mortality Prediction in Severe Burn Patients with Inhalation Injury
Sunghoon Park, Cheol Hong Kim, In Gyu Hyun, Ki Suck Jung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):17-27.
  • 2,169 View
  • 53 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Acid-base derangement are commonly encountered in critically ill patients. This study is to investigate underlying mechanisms of acid-base imbalance and also to examine whether they can predict mortality in burn patients.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed 73 severely burned patients who had admitted to burn intensive care unit, from January to July in 2004. All the patients had inhalation injury, identified by bronchoscopic examination. We analyzed the type and nature of the acid-base imbalances from arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes and other biological tests between survivors and non-survivors for 30 days after admission.
RESULTS
Acidosis was the most common disorder during the early and late hospital periods. Large fractions of those showed decreased strong ion difference (SID), increased anion gap corrected by albumin (AGc) and [Cl-]corrected. Mixed disorder and alkalosis emerged after the 7(th) hospital day. As time went by, albumin, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, pH and SID were more decreased in non-survivors (n=28) than in survivors (n=45) while [Cl-] corrected, alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradients, peripheral WBC counts and CRP were more increased in non-survivors than in survivors. In the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for mortality prediction, APACHE II score and % of total body surface area (%TBSA) burn were high: 0.866 (95% CI; 0.785~0.946) for APACHE II score, 0.817 (95% CI; 0.717~0.918) for %TBSA burn.
CONCLUSIONS
In burned patients with inhalation injury, various types of acid-base imbalances and electrolytes abnormalities emerged after resuscitation and so, more careful attentions pursued for correcting underlying acid-base derangement.
The Usage Pattern of Neuromuscular Blocker at Intensive Care Unit
Jun Gol Song, Hwa Sung Jung, Jae Do Lee, Yoon Kyung Lee, Hong Seuk Yang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):28-36.
  • 1,290 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The neuromuscular blocker is helpful to intubate the patients and reduce the amount of anesthetic agent. It also used at intensive care unit (ICU) to maintain airway patency, to achieve proper ventilatory care, etc. This survey is to determine the neuromuscular blocker usage patterns in ICU settings.
METHODS
Three hundred general hospitals with ICU settings were chosen. We designed a 10 itemed questionnaire which has several subquestions with multiple choices and sent it to them. After three months, forty seven hospitals returned the questionnaire and we made careful analysis with it.
RESULTS
The most frequent indication of neuromuscular blocker was to facilitate the mechanical ventilation (80.9%). Vecuronium was the most common neuromuscular blocker used (97.9%). Only 6.4% of them used peripheral nerve stimulator and the rest of them (89.4%) used clinical information to determine the degree of neuromuscular blocker. The respondents reported that recovery from muscle relaxation was needed on a periodic basis for regular neurological examinations (59.6%) in ICU settings. All respondents used the sedatives or narcotics with neuromuscular blocker and only 6.4% used reversal agents.
CONCLUSIONS
Although the rate of reply was not much (15.7%), we could get the current usage pattern of neuromuscular blocker at ICU. We recommend using short to intermediate acting neuromuscular blocker than long acting agents. Continuous infusion with careful dosage titration by peripheral nerve stimulator would be helpful to achieve rapid recovery. Additional sedatives and narcotics are beneficial to reduce the amount of neuromuscular blocker and to make patients comfortable as well.
The Carina as a Landmark for Evaluation of Adequate Central Catheter Tip Position with Computerized Tomography
Il Woo Shin, Mi Young Park, Ju Young Choi, Ju Tae Sohn, Heon Keun Lee, Young Kyun Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):37-41.
  • 1,351 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to determine whether the carina can be used as a landmark for evaluation of adequate central catheter tip position, and to examine the relationship between easily measurable body size and variable anatomical parameter.
METHODS
The SVC dimensions and relationship to radiographic landmarks were retrospectively determined from computerized tomography (CT) scans of 200 patients. The CT findings were assessed in terms of SVC length (SVCL), the distance between the carina and the right atrium inlet (CAL), and the sternal length (STL). Pearson's correlation and a regression test for height versus SVCL, STL versus SVCL and CAL were performed.
RESULTS
The median length of the SVC was 4.2 cm (range; 1.6 to 7.2 cm) and the distance between the carina and the right atrium inlet was 2.4 cm (range; 0.8 to 5.6 cm). With the regression test, height was correlated with SVCL (r(2)=0.09), and STL was correlated with both SVCL (r(2)=0.12) and STL (r(2)=0.04).
CONCLUSIONS
The carina was located always above the right atrium inlet. The carina was a reliable, simple anatomical landmark for the determination of correct placement with computerized tomography.
Medicolegal Aspects on Central Venous Catheterization Related Injury
Hyuna Bae, Sungeun Kim, Seokbae Lee, Rack Kyung Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):42-50.
  • 1,542 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We describe the characteristics of malpractice claims related to central venous catheterization and identify causes and potential preventability of such claims. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed by reviewing records at Lawnb and Lx CD-rom. The records on closed malpractice claim related to central venous catheterization were abstracted from the files available for analysis. The records were reviewed and were analysed to determine the factors associated with a successful defense.
RESULTS
Twelve closed claim cases, related to central venous cathetertization were reviewed in the data for malpractice. Catheter-related complications were pneumothorax, hemothorax, cardiac tamponade, pyothorax, hematoma due to arterial puncture, pseudoaneurysm. Almost cases resulted in indemnity payment and verdict for patient. CONCLUSIONS: Although malpractice claims related to central venous catheterization were uncommon, they resulted in high rate and amount of indemnity payments. In pediatric patient, catheterization should be performed with attention. Clinicians should consider the underlying disease of patients and do any pretreatment if needed. Post-procedural radiologic confirmation can improve patient outcome and is also associated with decreased indemnity risk. Informed consent is also important.
The Effect of Increased Intra-abdominal Pressure and Positions on Respiratory Mechanics during Laparoscopic Surgery
Jong Cook Park, Hyun Jun Kwak
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):51-56.
  • 1,409 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Peritoneal CO2 insufflation results in elevation of PaCO2 and decreased respiratory compliance. Respiratory mechanics can be measured with flow interrupter technique. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure and positions on respiratory mechanics during laparoscopic surgery.
METHODS
Female patients undergoing cholecystectomy (10 degrees head-up group, n=9) and gynecologic operation (10 degrees head-down group, n=9) under laparoscopy were studied. The upper limit of intra-abdonimal pressure was set to 12 mmHg. We measured airway flow and airway pressure of patients at preoperation, during insufflation, during positioning, and postoperation. Respiratory data were obtained from D-lite(R)sensor on-line.
RESULTS
After increased intra-abdominal pressure and positioning, dynamic compliances in both groups were significantly decreased by 31~35%, static compliances by 39~43%. There was no difference of compliance between positions. The elastic tissue resistance of head-up group was significantly elevated compared with after operation. After operation, the respiratory parameters returned nearly to control levels.
CONCLUSIONS
This result suggests that the respiratory mechanics should be monitored under laparoscopy continuously. Further studies on clinical condition such as ascites, hemorrhage, and pregnancy were needed.
Case Reports
Pharmacological Cardioversion with Phenylephrine for Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia during Lung Resection Surgery: A Case Report
Hyun Jung Kim, Soo Kyung Lee, Young Mi Kim, Hyun Soo Moon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):57-62.
  • 1,862 View
  • 34 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Supraventricular arrhythmias during and after thoracotomy for pulmonary resections are well documented, and risk factors of post-pulmonary resection arrhythmias are old age, magnitude of surgery, and coexisting cardiopulmonary disease etc. Among of supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disturbance that may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We experienced a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with severe hypotension which was escalated from atrial fibrillation during pulmonary bilobectomy for tuberculosis in a 44-year old male patient. Instead of usual electrical cardioversion or common antiarrhythmic agents, we selected phenylephrine bolus injection which induced normal sinus rhythm successfully from paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia of the patient.
Unusual Capnography due to Incorrect Assembly of Spring with Absorber Valve into Breathing Circuit - Experience of Normocarbia: A Case Report
Byong Soo Jang, Chang Gyu Han, Dong Gun Lim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2006;21(1):63-68.
  • 1,571 View
  • 8 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A focus on patient safety has heightened the awareness of pateint mornitoring. The importantce of clinical application of capnography continues to grow, as reflected by the increasing number of medical societies recommending its use. We recently encountered an abnormal capnography undergoing gastrectomy. It was noted that the waveform was not sustained zero-baseline formation as seen during inspiratory phase, immediately upsloping for expiratory plateau followed by inspiratoy downsloping as like a shape of curare cleft. But PaCO2 was within normal range. We found that the source of the problem was the incorrect (bottom up) assembly of spring with absorber valve into the CUBE, the circle breathing system of Dameca Ventilator. Spring with absorber valve divides CUBE circle into inspiratory and expiratory space. We concluded that the unusual capnography was resulted from the incorrect assembly of it, subsequently mixing of inspiratory and exhaled gases and rebreathing was occurred with the block of a gas flow to CO2 canister. After correcting assembly, the capnography was normalized.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care