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Original Articles
Neurosurgery
The efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Seungjoo Lee, Moinay Kim, Min-Yong Kwon, Sae Min Kwon, Young San Ko, Yeongu Chung, Wonhyoung Park, Jung Cheol Park, Jae Sung Ahn, Hanwool Jeon, Jihyun Im, Jae Hyun Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(2):282-293.   Published online May 30, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2024.00612
  • 274 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
This study evaluates the effectiveness of Therapeutic Hypothermia (TH) in treating poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), focusing on functional outcomes, mortality, and complications such as vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), and hydrocephalus. Methods: Adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines, a comprehensive literature search was conducted across multiple databases, including Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central, up to November 2023. Nine studies involving 368 patients were selected based on eligibility criteria focusing on TH in poor-grade SAH patients. Data extraction, bias assessment, and evidence certainty were systematically performed. Results: The primary analysis of unfavorable outcomes in 271 participants showed no significant difference between the TH and standard care groups (risk ratio [RR], 0.87). However, a significant reduction in vasospasm was observed in the TH group (RR, 0.63) among 174 participants. No significant differences were found in DCI, hydrocephalus, and mortality rates in the respective participant groups. Conclusions: TH did not significantly improve primary unfavorable outcomes in poor-grade SAH patients. However, the reduction in vasospasm rates indicates potential specific benefits. The absence of significant findings in other secondary outcomes and mortality highlights the need for further research to better understand TH's role in treating this patient population.
Neurology
Early assessment of aspiration risk in acute stroke by fiberoptic endoscopy in critically ill patients
Mohamed Saad Abdelaziz Elsyaad, Akram Muhammad Fayed, Mohamed Mostafa Abdel Salam Megahed, Nesrine Hazem Hamouda, Ahmed Moustafa Elmenshawy
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):276-285.   Published online June 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01375
  • 3,744 View
  • 215 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has been recommended to assess aspiration in stroke. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic roles of FEES in the early assessment of aspiration, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality in acute stroke patients.
Methods
Fifty-two patients with acute stroke admitted to the Alexandria Main University Hospital were included. Complete examinations and assessment of aspiration using the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) with FEES protocol were performed.
Results
The patients were classified into three groups: normal with no or low risk of aspiration (n=15, 27.3%; PAS level 1), low to moderate risk (n=8, 14.5%; PAS level 2–4), and high risk (n=32, 58.2%; PAS ≥5). There was high incidence of aspiration pneumonia, prolonged ICU stay, and mortality in both moderate- and high-risk groups (P=0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). The PAS score predicted aspiration pneumonia (hospital-acquired pneumonia) with sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 76.0%, respectively (negative predictive value [NPV], 76.0; positive predictive value [PPV], 80.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.706–0.940) and mortality with sensitivity and specificity of 88.46% and 68.97% (NPV, 87.0; PPV, 71.9; 95% CI, 0.749–0.951). The PAS score could predict the length of ICU stay with sensitivity and specificity of 70.21% and 87.50, respectively (NPV, 33.3; PPV, 97.1; 95% CI, 0.605–0.906).
Conclusions
The standard FEES protocol using PAS score is a useful tool to assess aspiration in acute stroke patients and could be used to predict length of ICU stay and mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
    Di Pan, Samuel Chung, Erik Nielsen, Michael S. Niederman
    Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.2024; 45(02): 237.     CrossRef
  • The use of videofluoroscopy (VFS) and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in the investigation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke patients: A narrative review
    K. Helliwell, V.J. Hughes, C.M. Bennion, A. Manning-Stanley
    Radiography.2023; 29(2): 284.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Cardiology
Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient
Hyun-Jung Lee, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Doyeon Hwang, Chan-Soon Park, Jae-Sung Lim, Eungyu Kang, Joo-Hee Zo
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(1):39-43.   Published online February 29, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.31.1.39
  • 5,671 View
  • 74 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Spontaneous ventricular thrombosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    Stella Pak, Juan Linares, Yan Yatsynovich, David Cha, Dexter Nye, Diana Kaminski, Jillian Costello
    Cardiology in the Young.2018; 28(3): 351.     CrossRef
  • Major Trauma induced Left Ventricular Thrombus after Acute Myocardial Infarction
    Dong Wook Lee, Ju Hee Ha, Jun Ho Kim, Ki Beom Park, Jae Joon Lee, Han Il Choi, Jin Hee Kim
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2016; 5(2): 163.     CrossRef
Postoperative Acute Cerebral Infarction Occurring after General Anesthesia
Seong Ho Ok, Seong Min Yang, Woochan Kim, Il Woo Shin, Heon Keun Lee, Young Kyun Chung, Ju Tae Sohn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(4):323-326.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.4.323
  • 2,735 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The common predisposing risk factors for perioperative stroke include: previous stroke, atrial fibrillation, old age (> 75 years), carotid stenosis, and diabetes mellitus. An endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in a 49-year-old male with chronic paranasal sinusitis and nasal polyps. The vital signs, physical and laboratory examinations, and electrocardiography on admission were within the normal limit. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen and 6% desflurane. The operation and anesthesia were uneventful with the exception of transient intraoperative hypotension. The patient recovered fully from the anesthesia (modified Aldrete score: 10) in the recovery room. However, he developed right arm weakness and dysarthria in the general ward 7 hours after the operation. We report a rare case of multifocal acute cerebral infarctions found on the postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in a noncardiac surgical patient.
Original Article
Malignant Cerebral Infarction after Pulmonary Resection for Lung Cancer
In Ae Song, Sang Min Jung, Dong Jin Kim, Sang Heon Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(3):180-183.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.3.180
  • 2,754 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Malignant cerebral infarction as postoperative complication after pulmonary resection occurs rarely, but can be rather serious. We report a case of 81-year-old man who suffered from malignant cerebral infarctions after pulmonary resection for lung cancer. He had a history of well-controlled hypertensions, but no evidences of arrhythmia, and neither stenosis nor atheroma in the carotid arteries and intracranial arteries. There were no specific events during his operation except that an inadvertent left carotid artery puncture occurred during the central line insertion. In intensive care unit (ICU), he had a delayed recovery of consciousness and dysarthria with right hemiplegia. Computed tomography revealed malignant middle cerebral infarctions due to the occlusion of left middle cerebral artery. It could be the thromboembolism due to pulmonary resections or carotid artery punctures in the patient without high risk factors.
Case Reports
Cerebral Ischemic Stroke in an Infant with Acute Myocarditis: A Case Report
Ga Hyun Lee, Yeo Hyang Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(2):119-122.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.2.119
  • 2,680 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 9-month-old infant presented with cough, tachypnea, and grunting was admitted. The patient was revealed to have cardiomegaly, high NT-proBNP, and severe left ventricular dilation and dysfunction; she was subsequently diagnosed with acute myocarditis and congestive heart failure. Intravenous immunoglobulin, inotropics, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blocker were used. However, left hemiparesis suddenly developed at 30-day after treatment. Brain MRI showed high signal intensity in the right middle cerebral arterial territory on diffusion weighted brain MRI and in the left parietal lobe with gyral enhancement. Echocardiogram revealed no definite intraventricular thrombus. The patient was started on an antiplatelet agent only without anticoagulant therapy for the treatment of cerebral infarct in respect of the risk to the infant. Four years after the cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), she showed complete recovery from hemiparesis, with no more CIS. In conclusion, severe ventricular dilatation and dysfunction can lead to thromboembolic events in infants. We should keep in mind that anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents can be used in specific situations.
A Case of Exertional Heat Stroke with Acute Hepatic Failure Treated with Plasma Exchange: A Case Report
Young Joo Han, Jae Wook Choi, Woo Jin Chung, Dong In Suh, June Dong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(2):130-133.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.2.130
  • 3,148 View
  • 31 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Heat stroke is a hyperthermia-induced systemic inflammatory response which may cause multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. We report a case of exertional heat stroke with acute hepatic failure in an 11-year-old boy. He initially presented hyperthermia and unconsciousness, which occurred after heavy exercise. His neurological state improved after terminating the hyperthermia by intensive cooling therapy. However, 24 hours after the initial recovery, his neurological state deteriorated again as acute hepatic injury progressed rapidly. We applied 4 times of total plasma exchange as an immunotherapy for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and acute hepatic failure expecting it to remove endogenous inflammatory factors and hepatotoxic cytokines. Following the plasma exchange, his mental state became normal and serial laboratory findings indicated improvement. He made a complete recovery without sequelae. We experienced successful treatment regarding exertional heat stroke with acute hepatic failure using plasma exchange.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Therapeutic plasma exchange in the treatment of exertional heat stroke and multiorgan failure
    Vimal Master Sankar Raj, Amanda Alladin, Brent Pfeiffer, Chryso Katsoufis, Marissa Defreitas, Alicia Edwards-Richards, Jayanthi Chandar, Wacharee Seeherunvong, Gwenn McLaughlin, Gaston Zilleruelo, Carolyn L. Abitbol
    Pediatric Nephrology.2013; 28(6): 971.     CrossRef
Original Article
The S100B Protein Could Be Used as Adjuvant Diagnostic Tool in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Min Hee Jung, Dong Hoon Lee, Chan Woong Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(4):217-220.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.4.217
  • 2,217 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
In the emergency department, the diagnosis of ischemic stroke is difficult because the diagnostic modalities are limited to non-contrast brain CT and neurologic examination. Serum S100B protein, a bio-marker for ischemic stroke, is needed as an additional diagnostic aid in acute ischemic stroke.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed 50 patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke between August 2007 and December 2008 by brain MRI after brain CT and serum S100B measurement in the emergency department. The serum levels of S100B protein were analyzed and the diagnostic sensitivity of non-contrast brain CT combined with abnormal elevation of S100B protein was compared with that of non-contrast brain CT alone.
RESULTS
The overall sensitivity of non-contrast brain CT in the diagnosis of ischemia was 54%. S100B protein in early ischemia had a sensitivity of 58%. However, combining non-contrast brain CT and S100B increased the sensitivity to 74%.
CONCLUSIONS
A biomarker-based diagnostic test would not replace the necessity for CT or other early imaging studies, and before contemplating any reperfusion strategy, neuro-imaging must be performed to rule out intracranial hemorrhage. However, S100B protein, a serum bio-marker, is able to help emergency physicians evaluate patients with suspected ischemic stroke and decide on treatment.
Case Reports
Transient Hypoglycemia-induced Hemiparesis Mimicking Stroke: A Case Report
Seong Hwa Lee, Ji Ho Ryu, Yong In Kim, Maeng Real Park, Mun Ki Min, Sun Min Hwang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(3):181-183.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.3.181
  • 3,654 View
  • 85 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hypoglycemia is caused by poor oral intake, excessive exercise, alcohol abuse and inaccurate use of a hypoglycemic agent or insulin in patients that have history of diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in the elderly. Severe hypoglycemia has a variety of different symptoms or signs from focal neurologic deficits to severe coma, or death. It can be difficult to differentiate hypoglycemia-induced symptoms or signs, and stroke or cardiovascular disease in acute setting. Transient hypoglycemic hemiparesis is an infrequent case in the emergency department (ED), which is frequently misdiagnosed for stroke. When patients with decreased mental status or hemiparesis are admitted to the ED, a routine blood sugar test is essential. Hypoglycemic hemiparesis if unrecognized can result in permanent neurological damage. Therefore, it is important to detect hypoglycemia early and treat it appropriately.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Consideration of Prognostic Factors in Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy
    Ik-Kwon Seo, Woo-Ik Choi, Sang-Chan Jin, Hyuk-Won Chang
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2012; 27(4): 209.     CrossRef
Induced Hypertension Using Phenylephrine in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Case Report
Sang Beom Jeon, Hoyon Sohn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(3):172-175.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.3.172
  • 3,936 View
  • 126 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Decreased cerebral perfusion is associated with a poor prognosis for a patient suffering from acute ischemic stroke. Induced hypertension may improve the cerebral perfusion and stroke symptoms. However, there is not enough clinical evidence to support this therapy and it is rarely performed in daily practice. Here we report three patients with acute ischemic stroke and cerebral hypoperfusion who were successfully treated with induced hypertension using intravenous phenylephrine. Phenylephrine infusion may be a treatment option for patients suffering from acute ischemic stroke and cerebral hypoperfusion.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Therapeutic Use and Chronic Abuse of CNS Stimulants and Anabolic Drugs
    Daniela Coliță, Cezar-Ivan Coliță, Dirk Hermann, Eugen Coliță, Thorsten Doeppner, Ion Udristoiu, Aurel Popa-Wagner
    Current Issues in Molecular Biology.2022; 44(10): 4902.     CrossRef
Original Article
The Effect of Emergency Department Treatment Time on Outcomes in Acute Stroke Patients
Dong Wook Lee, Eui Chung Kim, Ok Jun Kim, Sung Wook Choi, Young Tae Park, Yun Kyung Cho
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(2):76-82.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.2.76
  • 2,143 View
  • 39 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Stroke is a disease that leads to a long period of disability and death. Accordingly, the initial treatment is so influential on the prognosis of a patient that shortening the time to initial treatment after hospital admission has a very important role in the entire treatment regimen. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of the Emergency Department treatment time at Bundang CHA Hospital for acute stroke patients to improve the treatment regimen through six sigma activities.
METHODS
The outcomes for 246 patients with suspected acute strokes who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Bundang CHA Hospital, the flow of the emergency department process divided into 11 phases, and the duration of each phase were determined. Patients were classified as before and after six sigma activities and compared.
RESULTS
The five phases statistically demonstrated the effect of meaningful improvement in the duration of visit-receiving CT prescriptions, visit-receiving lab prescriptions, consult request-arriving to the emergency department, visit-CT angiography results, and visit-the issue of hospital admissions. In the next 2 phases, the sigma level also improved by 0.71sigma and 0.06sigma. However, the total emergency department stay time was not statistically meaningful. The time required time was increased and the sigma level was decreased by 0.19sigma.
CONCLUSIONS
The result of six sigma activities showed the effect of the treatment system improvement with a partial decrease in the duration of each phase, but the total emergency department stay time was not improved owing to environmental factors. For better results, continuous improvement of the treatment system and expansion of hospital facilities will be required.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care