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Original Articles
Nursing
The effects of environmental interventions for delirium in critically ill surgical patients
Hak-Jae Lee, Yoon-Joong Jung, Nak-Joon Choi, Suk-Kyung Hong
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):479-487.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00990
  • 1,075 View
  • 71 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium occurs at high rates among patients in intensive care units and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental interventions on delirium.
Methods
This prospective cohort study enrolled 192 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) during the pre-intervention (June 2013 to October 2013) and post-intervention (June 2014 to October 2014) periods. Environmental interventions involved a cognitive assessment, an orientation, and a comfortable environment including proper sleep conditions. The primary outcomes were the prevalence, duration, and onset of delirium.
Results
There were no statistically significant differences in incidence rate, time of delirium onset, general characteristics, and mortality between the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups. The durations of delirium were 14.4±19.1 and 7.7±7.3 days in the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups, respectively, a significant reduction (P=0.027). The lengths of SICU stay were 20.0±22.9 and 12.6±8.7 days for the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups, respectively, also a significant reduction (P=0.030).
Conclusions
The implementation of an environmental intervention program reduced the duration of delirium and length of stay in the SICU for critically ill surgical patients.
Pediatrics
Implementation and effectiveness of a delirium care protocol in Thai critically ill children
Chanapai Chaiyakulsil, Thananya Thadahirunchot
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):488-497.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00045
  • 976 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium in critically ill children can result in long-term morbidity. Our main objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of a new protocol on the reduction, prevalence, and duration of delirium and to identify associated risk factors.
Methods
The effectiveness of the protocol was evaluated by a chart review in all critically ill children aged 1 month to 15 years during the study period. A Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium score ≥9 was considered positive for delirium. Data on delirium prevalence and duration from the pre-implementation and post-implementation phases were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors of delirium.
Results
A total of 120 children was analyzed (58 children in the pre-implementation group and 62 children in the post-implementation group). Fifty children (41.7%) screened positive for delirium. Age less than 2 years, delayed development, use of mechanical ventilation, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay >7 days were significantly associated with delirium. The proportion of children screened positive was not significantly different after the implementation (before, 39.7% vs. after, 43.5%; P=0.713). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery.
Conclusions
The newly implemented protocol was able to reduce the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery. More studies should be conducted to reduce delirium to prevent long-term morbidity after PICU discharge.
Neurology
The effects of hypomagnesemia on delirium in middle-aged and older adult patients admitted to medical intensive care units
Joong-Yub Kim, Hyo Jin Lee, Hong Yeul Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Jinwoo Lee, Tae Yun Park
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):407-414.   Published online July 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00164
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  • 199 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
In critically ill patients, the most common manifestation of brain dysfunction is delirium, which is independently associated with higher morbidity and mortality. While electrolyte imbalance is one of the precipitating factors, the impact of hypomagnesemia on the incidence of delirium remains unknown.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral center between January and June 2020. Patients with ICU stay ≥48 hours and aged 40–85 years were included. The primary outcome was cumulative incidence of delirium in the ICU. Patients were divided into two groups based on serum magnesium level at ICU admission. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed, and covariates were selected using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method.
Results
A total of 109 patients included 43 (39.4%) women and had a median age of 69.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 60.0–76.0 years). The median magnesium level was 1.7 mg/dl (IQR, 1.5–1.9 mg/dl), and the cumulative incidence of delirium was 32.1% (35 patients). Hypomagnesemia was independently associated with delirium (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–4.38), along with prior use of immunosuppressants (aHR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.46–6.48) or benzodiazepines (aHR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.54–10.50), body mass index (aHR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84–1.02), and alcohol history (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 0.74–3.80).
Conclusions
In critically ill adults, hypomagnesemia increases the risk of delirium by more than two-fold compared to patients with normal magnesium level.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hypomagnesemia may be related to frailty, gait and balance problems, and basic activities of daily living in older adults
    Suleyman Emre Kocyigit, Bilal Katipoglu
    Acta Clinica Belgica.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Hypomagnesemia and incident delirium in hospitalized older persons
    Virginia Boccardi, Sara Ercolani, Rocco Serra, Valentina Bubba, Alessandro Piccolo, Michela Scamosci, Alfredo Villa, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Patrizia Mecocci
    Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.2023; 35(4): 847.     CrossRef
Neurology
Cytokine profiles in intensive care unit delirium
Ryan J. Smith, Christian Lachner, Vijay P. Singh, Shubham Trivedi, Biswajit Khatua, Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):415-428.   Published online June 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01508
  • 4,731 View
  • 182 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Neuroinflammation causing disruption of the blood-brain barrier and immune cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma may cause delirium; however, knowledge of the exact pathophysiologic mechanism remains incomplete. The purpose of our study was to determine whether cytokine profiles differ depending on whether delirium occurs in the setting of sepsis, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), or recent surgery.
Methods
This prospective observational cohort study involved 119 critically ill patients admitted to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) during 2019 and 2020. Delirium was identified using the validated confusion assessment method for the ICU. Multiple delirium risk factors were collected daily including clinical characteristics, hospital course, lab values, vital signs, surgical exposure, drug exposure, and COVID-19 characteristics. Serums samples were collected within 12 hours of ICU admission and cytokine levels were measured.
Results
The following proinflammatory cytokines were elevated in our delirium population: tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, C-C motif ligand (CCL) 2, CCL3, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL10, IL-8, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10. Analysis of relative cytokine levels in those patients that developed delirium in the setting of sepsis, COVID-19, and recent surgery showed elevations of CCL2, CXCL10, and TNF-α in both the sepsis and COVID-19 group in comparison to the postsurgical population. In the postsurgical group, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was elevated and CXCL10 was decreased relative to the opposing groups.
Conclusions
We identify several cytokines and precipitating factors known to be associated with delirium. However, our study suggests that the cytokine profile associated with delirium is variable and contingent upon delirium precipitating factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of postoperative delirium with serum and cerebrospinal fluid proteomic profiles: a prospective cohort study in older hip fracture patients
    Lucía Lozano-Vicario, Ángel Javier Muñoz-Vázquez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Arkaitz Galbete-Jiménez, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaría, Bernardo Abel Cedeno-Veloz, Fabricio Zambom-Ferraresi, Barbara C. Van Munster, José Ramón Ortiz-Gómez, Ángel
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    Frontiers in Neurology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Guideline
Pharmacology
2021 KSCCM clinical practice guidelines for pain, agitation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disturbance in the intensive care unit
Yijun Seo, Hak-Jae Lee, Eun Jin Ha, Tae Sun Ha
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):1-25.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00094
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(1):149
  • 16,843 View
  • 1,689 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We revised and expanded the “2010 Guideline for the Use of Sedatives and Analgesics in the Adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU).” We revised the 2010 Guideline based mainly on the 2018 “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption (PADIS) in Adult Patients in the ICU,” which was an updated 2013 pain, agitation, and delirium guideline with the inclusion of two additional topics (rehabilitation/mobility and sleep). Since it was not possible to hold face-to-face meetings of panels due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all discussions took place via virtual conference platforms and e-mail with the participation of all panelists. All authors drafted the recommendations, and all panelists discussed and revised the recommendations several times. The quality of evidence for each recommendation was classified as high (level A), moderate (level B), or low/very low (level C), and all panelists voted on the quality level of each recommendation. The participating panelists had no conflicts of interest on related topics. The development of this guideline was independent of any industry funding. The Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility (rehabilitation/mobilization), and Sleep Disturbance panels issued 42 recommendations (level A, 6; level B, 18; and level C, 18). The 2021 clinical practice guideline provides up-to-date information on how to prevent and manage pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disturbance in adult ICU patients. We believe that these guidelines can provide an integrated method for clinicians to manage PADIS in adult ICU patients.

Citations

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    Karina Sichieri, Danilo Donizetti Trevisan, Ricardo Luís Barbosa, Silvia Regina Secoli
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    Adrienne E. van der Hoeven, Denise Bijlenga, Ernst van der Hoeven, Mink S. Schinkelshoek, Floor W. Hiemstra, Laura Kervezee, David J. van Westerloo, Rolf Fronczek, Gert Jan Lammers
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  • Liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines
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Original Article
Neurology
Association of natural light exposure and delirium according to the presence or absence of windows in the intensive care unit
Hyo Jin Lee, Eunhye Bae, Hong Yeul Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Jinwoo Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):332-341.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00556
  • 6,573 View
  • 218 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have increased risks of delirium, which is associated with worse outcomes. As pharmacologic treatments for delirium are ineffective, prevention is important. Nonpharmacologic preventive strategies include exposure to natural light and restoring circadian rhythm. We investigated the effect of exposure to natural light through windows on delirium in the ICU.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study assessed all patients admitted to the medical ICU of a university-affiliated hospital between January and June 2020 for eligibility. The ICU included 12 isolation rooms, six with and six without windows. Patients with ICU stays of >48 hours were included and were divided into groups based on their admission to a single room with (window group) or without windows (windowless group). The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of delirium. The secondary outcomes were the numbers of delirium- and mechanical ventilation-free days, ICU and hospital length of stay, and in-ICU and 28-day mortalities.
Results
Of the 150 included patients (window group: 83 [55.3%]; windowless group: 67 [44.7%]), the cumulative incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the window group than in the windowless group (21.7% vs. 43.3%; relative risk, 1.996; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.220–3.265). Other secondary outcomes did not differ between groups. Admission to a room with a window was independently associated with a decreased risk of delirium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.318; 95% CI, 0.125–0.805).
Conclusions
Exposure to natural light through windows was associated with a lower incidence of delirium in the ICU.

Citations

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    Michelle A. Fischer, Monica Corsetti
    Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America.2024; 42(1): 135.     CrossRef
  • There’s No Place Like Home: Delirium as a Barrier in Geriatric Trauma
    Abdoulaziz Toure, Roshan Tadi, Mitchell Meagher, Catherine Ting Brown, Hoi Lam, Samantha LaRosa, Launick Saint-Fort, Huda Syed, Nathaniel Harshaw, Katherine Moore, Neelofer Sohail, Lindsey L. Perea
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    Yijun Seo, Hak-Jae Lee, Eun Jin Ha, Tae Sun Ha
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Review Articles
Infection
Evolution of COVID-19 management in critical care: review and perspective from a hospital in the United Kingdom
Avinash Kumar Jha, Sudhindra Gurunath Kulkarni
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(1):1-14.   Published online February 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00864
  • 7,426 View
  • 403 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The unexpected emergence and spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been pandemic, with long-lasting effects, and unfortunately, it does not seem to have ended. Integrating advanced planning, strong teamwork, and clinical management have been both essential and rewarding during this time. Understanding the new concepts of this novel disease and accommodating them into clinical practice is an ongoing process, ultimately leading to advanced and highly specific treatment modalities. We conducted a literature review through PubMed, Europe PMC, Scopus, and Google Scholar to incorporate the most updated therapeutic principles. This article provides a concise and panoramic view of the cohort of critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We conclude that COVID-19 management includes low tidal volume ventilation, early proning, steroids, and a high suspicion for secondary bacterial/fungal infections. Lung ultrasound is emerging as a promising tool in assessing the clinical response. Managing non-clinical factors such as staff burnout, communication/consent issues, and socio-emotional well-being is equally important.

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Neurology
Prevention and management of delirium in critically ill adult patients in the intensive care unit: a review based on the 2018 PADIS guidelines
Seung Yong Park, Heung Bum Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(2):117-125.   Published online April 17, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00451
  • 21,874 View
  • 1,372 Download
  • 40 Web of Science
  • 43 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Delirium is an acute, confusional state characterized by altered consciousness and a reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is associated with a number of complex underlying medical conditions and can be difficult to recognize. Many critically ill patients (e.g., up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit [ICU]) experience delirium due to underlying medical or surgical health problems, recent surgical or other invasive procedures, medications, or various noxious stimuli (e.g., underlying psychological stressors, mechanical ventilation, noise, light, patient care interactions, and drug-induced sleep disruption or deprivation). Delirium is associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU admittance as well as an increased risk of death, disability, and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, the early recognition of delirium is important and ICU medical staff should devote careful attention to both watching for the occurrence of delirium and its prevention and management. This review presents a brief overview of delirium and an update of the literature with reference to the 2018 Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption in Adult Patients in the ICU.

Citations

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Original Article
Neurology
The Effects of a Delirium Notification Program on the Clinical Outcomes of the Intensive Care Unit: A Preliminary Pilot Study
Jaesub Park, Seung-Taek Oh, Sunyoung Park, Won-Jung Choi, Cheung Soo Shin, Se Hee Na, Jae-Jin Kim, Jooyoung Oh, Jin Young Park
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):23-33.   Published online February 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00584
  • 9,409 View
  • 185 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, so recent clinical guidelines recommended routine delirium monitoring in the ICU. But, its effect on the patient’s clinical outcome is still controversial. In particular, the effect of systems that inform the primary physician of the results of monitoring is largely unknown.
Methods
The delirium notification program using bedside signs and electronic chart notifications was applied to the pre-existing delirium monitoring protocol. Every patient was routinely evaluated for delirium, pain, and anxiety using validated tools. Clinical outcomes, including duration of delirium, ICU stay, and mortality were reviewed and compared for 3 months before and after the program implementation.
Results
There was no significant difference between the two periods of delirium, ICU stay, and mortality. However, anxiety, an important prognostic factor in the ICU survivor’s mental health, was significantly reduced and pain tended to decrease.
Conclusions
Increasing the physician’s awareness of the patient’s mental state by using a notification program could reduce the anxiety of ICU patients even though it may not reduce delirium. The results suggested that the method of delivering the results of monitoring was also an important factor in the success of the delirium monitoring program.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adaptation and Validation of a Chart‐Based Delirium Detection Tool for the ICU (CHART‐DEL‐ICU)
    Karla D. Krewulak, Carmen Hiploylee, E. W. Ely, Henry T. Stelfox, Sharon K. Inouye, Kirsten M. Fiest
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2021; 69(4): 1027.     CrossRef
Reviews
Policy
The ABCDEF Implementation Bundle
Annachiara Marra, Kwame Frimpong, E. Wesley Ely
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(3):181-193.   Published online August 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.00682
  • 33,913 View
  • 1,440 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Long-term morbidity, long-term cognitive impairment and hospitalization-associated disability are common occurrence in the survivors of critical illness, with significant consequences for patients and for the caregivers. The ABCDEF bundle represents an evidence-based guide for clinicians to approach the organizational changes needed for optimizing ICU patient recovery and outcomes. The ABCDEF bundle includes: Assess, Prevent, and Manage Pain, Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials (SAT) and Spontaneous Breathing Trials (SBT), Choice of analgesia and sedation, Delirium: Assess, Prevent, and Manage, Early mobility and Exercise, and Family engagement. The purpose of this review is to describe the core features of the ABCDEF bundle.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of using eye masks and earplugs in preventing delirium in intensive care patients: A single‐blinded, randomized, controlled trial
    Gülşen Kiliç, Sultan Kav
    Nursing in Critical Care.2023; 28(5): 698.     CrossRef
  • The impact of multidisciplinary huddle in decreasing time to extubation from mechanical ventilation
    Rana Al Tabee, AmalA Al Khalfan, KhaledA Al Awam
    Saudi Critical Care Journal.2020; 4(1): 15.     CrossRef
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    Mia Hylén, Eva Akerman, Ewa Idvall, Carin Alm‐Roijer
    Journal of Advanced Nursing.2020; 76(10): 2660.     CrossRef
  • Nursing Interventions to Prevent Delirium in Critically Ill Patients in the Intensive Care Unit during the COVID19 Pandemic—Narrative Overview
    Dorota Ozga, Sabina Krupa, Paweł Witt, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska
    Healthcare.2020; 8(4): 578.     CrossRef
Psychology/Neurology
Intensive Care Unit Delirium
Yongsuk Kim, Sung Jin Hong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2015;30(2):63-72.   Published online May 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2015.30.2.63
  • 8,930 View
  • 297 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.
Case Report
Severe Postoperative Delirium Lasting for Three Weeks: A Case Report
Jun Rho Yoon, Tae Kwan Kim, Su Jung Yoon, Yee Suk Kim, Si Hyun Kim, Man Gyu Kim, Jeong Ju Seo
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(1):42-46.
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  • 39 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Postoperative delirium in the intensive care unit is a serious problem that has recently attracted much attention. We present a 73-year-old female patient who was admitted by multiple fractures induced by an accident. We started general anesthesia for the operation of open reduction and internal fixation. After the discontinuation of general anesthesia, the patient was transported to the intensive care unit. The symptoms of delirium were developed and controlled with medications including haloperidols, benzodiazepines, and vitamins. The patient was recovered three weeks after the management and received two other operations, but delirium did not be developed again. She was discharged from the hospital without complications.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care