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Review Article
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Extracorporeal circulation models in small animals: beyond the limits of preclinical research
Mukhammad Kayumov, Reverien Habimana, Dowan Kim, Francis O Obiweluozor, In Seok Jeong, Hwa Jin Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):1-7.   Published online February 28, 2023
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  • 201 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use has remarkably increased in recent years. Although ECMO has become essential for patients with refractory cardiac and respiratory failure, extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is associated with significant complications. Small-animal models of ECC have been developed and widely used to better understand ECC-induced pathophysiology. This review article summarizes the development of small-animal ECC models, including the animal species, circuit configuration, priming, perioperative procedures, cannulation, and future perspectives of small-animal ECMO models.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Implementation in Septic Shock Rat Model
    Tianlong Wang, Mingru Zhang, Wenhao Dong, Jing Wang, Han Zhang, Yuefu Wang, Bingyang Ji
    ASAIO Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Multiorgan recovery in a cadaver body using mild hypothermic ECMO treatment in a murine model
    Nodir Madrahimov, Vitalii Mutsenko, Ruslan Natanov, Dejan Radaković, André Klapproth, Mohamed Hassan, Mathias Rosenfeldt, Florian Kleefeldt, Ivan Aleksic, Süleyman Ergün, Christoph Otto, Rainer G. Leyh, Constanze Bening
    Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Post-Mortem Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Perfusion Rat Model: A Feasibility Study
    Matthias Manfred Deininger, Carl-Friedrich Benner, Lasse Johannes Strudthoff, Steffen Leonhardt, Christian Simon Bruells, Gernot Marx, Christian Bleilevens, Thomas Breuer
    Animals.2023; 13(22): 3532.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Association of Hyperlactatemia and IL-6 Hypercytokinemia after Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Preliminary Report
Sang Hoon Yoon, Seung Zhoo Yoon, Hye Won Shin, Sung Uk Choi, Choon Hak Lim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(1):18-23.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hyperlactatemia (HL) is common and is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. At present, the cause of HL during CPB is proposed to be tissue hypoxia. Tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery can be impaired to varying degrees during CPB. Although surgery involving CPB apparatus is associated with increased pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-alpha and IL-6, tissue hypoxia that occurs during CPB may be an additionally potent stimulus to inflammation. We hypothesized that hypoxic patients during CPB that experience elevated serum lactate levels, may be related to higher serum cytokine level after CPB than normoxic patients during CPB with normal serum lactate levels.
Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured by ELISA in a) Time 1; before initiation of CPB, b) Time 2; 30 min after aortic de-clamping, c) Time 3; 24 hrs after aortic de-clamping. Levels of lactate was measured at a) Time A; before initiation of CPB, b) Time B; 30 min after aortic de-clamping. Postoperative ICU stay, intubation time and oxygen index were evaluated as postoperative morbidity scale.
There were no statistical differences between HL (n = 43, lactate > or =3 mMol/L at time B) and normal lactate group (NL) (n = 63, lactate <3 mMol/L at time B) in demographic data, preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction, CPB time, and aortic cross-clamp time. Level of IL-6 in HL at time 3 was higher than that of NL. The ICU stay and intubation time were longer in HL. The oxygen index on 1st postoperative day was lower in HL.
Our results suggest that hyperlactatemia after weaning from CPB may be related to IL-6 hypercytokinemia, and therefore related to postoperative morbidity.
The Effect of Blood Transfusion on the Tissue Perfusion and Lung Injury during Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Sung Jin Hong, Se Ho Moon, Choon Ho Sung, Hae Jin Lee, Jin Hwan Choi, Ji Young Lee, Yong Suk Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):98-105.
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The blood components of priming solution for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may have opposite roles for tissue perfusion, which are the activation of inflammatory reaction and the improvement of oxygen carrying capacity. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion of priming solution on inflammatory response and tissue perfusion. METHODS: Twenty mongrel dogs randomly allocated and received hypothermic CPB with blood- containing (H group, n=10), or non-hemic (NH group, n=10) priming solution. Gastric intramucosal CO2 concentration (PrCO2), intramucosal pH (pHi), interleukin-8 (IL-8), blood gas and hemodynamic parameters were measured at 1) before CPB, 2) 1 hour during CPB, 3) the end of CPB, 4) 2 hours after CPB, 5) 4 hours after CPB. The ratio of wet to dried lung weight was measured. Statistical verification was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and unpaired t-test.
PrCO2 increased and pHi decreased during the study without significant difference between the groups. IL-8 increased in both groups and IL-8 of H group increased higher than that of NH group during the study. The difference between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 of NH group was higher than that of H group at 4 hours after CPB. The ratio of wet to dried lung weight was not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the allogenic blood in priming solution aggravates the CPB- induced inflammatory reaction, however, the CPB-induced impairment of gastric mucosal perfusion and the pulmonary edema are not significantly affected, compared to non-hemic solution.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care