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2 "glycocalyx"
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Original Article
Basic science and research
Feasibility study of incident dark-field video microscope for measuring microcirculatory variables in the mouse dorsal skinfold chamber model
Christine Kang, Ah-Reum Cho, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Hyae Jin Kim, Eun-Jung Kim, Soeun Jeo, Jeong-Min Hong, Daehoan Moon
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(1):29-36.   Published online February 26, 2021
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Despite the importance of microcirculation in organ function, monitoring microcirculation is not a routine practice. With developments in microscopic technology, incident dark field (IDF) microscopy (Cytocam) has allowed visualization of the microcirculation. Dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) mouse model has been used to investigate microcirculation physiology. By employing Cytocam-IDF imaging with DSC model to assess microcirculatory alteration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia, we attempted to validate availability of Cytocam-IDF imaging of microcirculation.
DSC was implanted in eight BALB/c mice for each group; control and sepsis. Both groups were given 72 hours to recover from surgery. The sepsis group had an additional 24-hour period of recovery post-LPS injection (4 mg/kg). Subsequently, a video of the microcirculation was recorded using Cytocam. Data on microcirculatory variables were obtained. Electron microscopy was implemented using lanthanum fixation to detect endothelial glycocalyx degradation.
The microcirculatory flow index was significantly lower (control, 2.8±0.3; sepsis, 2.1±0.8; P=0.033) and heterogeneity index was considerably higher (control, 0.10±0.15; sepsis, 0.53±0.48; P=0.044) in the sepsis group than in the control group. Electron microscopy revealed glycocalyx demolishment in the sepsis group.
Cytocam showed reliable ability for observing changes in the microcirculation under septic conditions in the DSC model. The convenience and good imaging quality and the automatic analysis software available for Cytocam-IDF imaging, along with the ability to perform real-time in vivo experiments in the DSC model, are expected to be helpful in future microcirculation investigations.
Review Article
Fluid management in perioperative and critically ill patients
Dongho Kang, Kyung Yeon Yoo
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(4):235-245.   Published online November 29, 2019
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  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Fluid therapy to restore and/or maintain tissue perfusion may affect patient outcomes in perioperative, emergency, and intensive care. Kinetic analyses and outcome-oriented studies have provided more insight into fluid management. Crystalloids are slowly distributed to the interstitial space, and the efficiency (proportion of infused fluid retained in the bloodstream) is 50%−75% as long as infusion continues and may increase up to 100% when the arterial pressure has decreased. Elimination of the infused fluid during general anesthesia and surgery is very slow, amounting to only 10%–20% compared with that in conscious patients. When the endothelial glycocalyx layer is degraded in sepsis or trauma-induced systemic inflammation, turnover of colloids and crystalloids is accelerated and the efficiency is reduced, which may lead to tissue edema, inflammation, poor wound healing, and organ dysfunction. Balanced crystalloids are pragmatic initial resuscitation fluids and improve patient outcomes compared to saline (0.9% sodium chloride). Albumin may be beneficial, but other synthetic colloids appear to increase the risk of acute kidney injury and death among patients in the intensive care unit. Fluid kinetics is likely to change based on patient physiological conditions (e.g., general anesthesia, surgery, stress, dehydration, blood pressure, or inflammation) and fluid types. To maximize efficacy and minimize iatrogenic side effects, fluids should be prescribed based on individual patient factors, disease states, and other treatment remedies.


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ACC : Acute and Critical Care