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Mortality rates among adult critical care patients with unusual or extreme values of vital signs and other physiological parameters: a retrospective study
Charles Harding, Marybeth Pompei, Dmitriy Burmistrov, Francesco Pompei
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(2):304-311.   Published online May 13, 2024
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We evaluated relationships of vital signs and laboratory-tested physiological parameters with in-hospital mortality, focusing on values that are unusual or extreme even in critical care settings. Methods: We retrospectively studied Philips Healthcare–MIT eICU data (207 U.S. hospitals, 20142015), including 166,959 adult-patient critical care admissions. Analyzing most-deranged (worst) value measured in the first admission day, we investigated vital signs (body temperature, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory rate) as well as albumin, bilirubin, blood pH via arterial blood gas (ABG), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, FiO2 ABG, glucose, hematocrit, PaO2 ABG, PaCO2 ABG, sodium, 24-hour urine output, and white blood cell count (WBC). Results: In-hospital mortality was ≥50% at extremes of low blood pH, low and high body temperature, low albumin, low glucose, and low heart rate. Near extremes of blood pH, temperature, glucose, heart rate, PaO2 , and WBC, relatively. Small changes in measured values correlated with several-fold mortality rate increases. However, high mortality rates and abrupt mortality increases were often hidden by the common practice of thresholding or binning physiological parameters. The best predictors of in-hospital mortality were blood pH, temperature, and FiO2 (scaled Brier scores: 0.084, 0.063, and 0.049, respectively). Conclusions: In-hospital mortality is high and sharply increasing at extremes of blood pH, body temperature, and other parameters. Common-practice thresholding obscures these associations. In practice, vital signs are sometimes treated more casually than laboratory-tested parameters. Yet, vitals are easier to obtain and we found they are often the best mortality predictors, supporting perspectives that vitals are undervalued.
Comparison between Gel Pad Cooling Device and Water Blanket during Target Temperature Management in Cardiac Arrest Patients
Yoon Sun Jung, Kyung Su Kim, Gil Joon Suh, Jun-Hwi Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(4):246-251.   Published online November 30, 2018
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  • 151 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Target temperature management (TTM) improves neurological outcomes for comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We compared the efficacy and safety of a gel pad cooling device (GP) and a water blanket (WB) during TTM.
We performed a retrospective analysis in a single hospital, wherein we measured the time to target temperature (<34°C) after initiation of cooling to evaluate the effectiveness of the cooling method. The temperature farthest from 33°C was selected every hour during maintenance. Generalized estimation equation analysis was used to compare the absolute temperature differences from 33°C during the maintenance period. If the selected temperature was not between 32°C and 34°C, the hour was considered a deviation from the target. We compared the deviation rates during hypothermia maintenance to evaluate the safety of the different methods.
A GP was used for 23 patients among of 53 patients, and a WB was used for the remaining. There was no difference in baseline temperature at the start of cooling between the two patient groups (GP, 35.7°C vs. WB, 35.6°C; P=0.741). The time to target temperature (134.2 minutes vs. 233.4 minutes, P=0.056) was shorter in the GP patient group. Deviation from maintenance temperature (2.0% vs. 23.7%, P<0.001) occurred significantly more frequently in the WB group. The mean absolute temperature difference from 33°C during the maintenance period was 0.19°C (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17°C to 0.21°C) in the GP group and 0.76°C (95% CI, 0.71°C to 0.80°C) in the WB group. GP significantly decreased this difference by 0.59°C (95% CI, 0.44°C to 0.75°C; P<0.001).
The GP was superior to the WB for strict temperature control during TTM.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and safety of the Arctic Sun device for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in adult patients following cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    SaurabhC Sharda, MandipSingh Bhatia, RohitR Jakhotia, Ashish Behera, Atul Saroch, AshokKumar Pannu, HMohan Kumar
    Brain Circulation.2023; 9(3): 185.     CrossRef
  • Factors influencing deviation from target temperature during targeted temperature management in postcardiac arrest patients
    Kanae Ochiai, Yasuhiro Otomo
    Open Heart.2023; 10(2): e002459.     CrossRef
  • Water Temperature Variability Is Associated with Neurologic Outcomes in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors Who Underwent Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C
    Seok Jin Ryu, Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Yong Hun Jung, Jung Soo Park, Jin Hong Min, Dong Ki Kim
    Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management.2022; 12(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of hydrogel pad and water-circulating blanket cooling methods for targeted temperature management: A propensity score-matched analysis from a prospective multicentre registry
    Kyoung Tak Keum, Yong Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Seong Jun Ahn, Seong Youn Hwang, Joo Suk Oh, Su Jin Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, Kyung Woon Jeung
    Resuscitation.2021; 169: 78.     CrossRef
  • Use of a Servo-Controlled Cooling Gel Pad System to Regulate Body Temperature in Critically Ill Children
    Gema Pérez, Gema Manrique, Julia García, Sara de la Mata, Débora Sanz, Jesús López-Herce
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine.2020; 21(12): e1094.     CrossRef
  • Management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome
    Youngjoon Kang
    Acute and Critical Care.2019; 34(3): 173.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care