Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

ACC : Acute and Critical Care

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Issue > Previous issues
13 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Volume 27 (4); November 2012
Prev issue Next issue
Original Articles
Consideration of Prognostic Factors in Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy
Ik Kwon Seo, Woo Ik Choi, Sang Chan Jin, Hyuk Won Chang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):209-217.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.209
  • 2,295 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recently, there are many reports about the association of Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) and the prognosis of hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE), but those relationships have not yet been completely determined. As such, we researched for prognosis, according to a variety of clinical data, and the lesion's distribution on DWI.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients who were diagnosed as HE. In addition, those prognoses were analyzed by a variety of clinical data and characteristics of lesion's distribution, which were evaluated on DWI and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) maps. Three months later, those prognoses were determined by each Modified Rankin Scale. Further, the time-dependent average Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), among the groups according to the characteristics of lesion's distributions in the initial DWI, was estimated.
RESULTS
In this study, the difference of prognosis was not shown, according to all the clinical data, such as the severity or duration of the hypoglycemic state, but the group that did not have any pathologic lesion on the initial DWI demonstrated a better prognosis, in comparison with the groups-that exhibited any positive lesion on the initial DWI (p = 0.006). The group that had a focal pathologic lesion on the initial DWI showed a better prognosis than the diffuse lesion's group (p = 0.045). The groups with no lesion or focal lesion showed a faster recovery of GCS than the other groups with a positive lesion or diffuse lesion within the initial 1 week.
CONCLUSIONS
We can identify that the characteristics of the lesion's distribution of DWI can be more helpful to predict of prognosis in HE than a variety of clinical data, such as the severity or duration of the hypoglycemic state.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Progress of Rehabilitation in Patients with Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy Accompanying Dysphagia and Voiding Difficulty: A Case Report
    Hannae Jo, Hee-won Park, Sora Baek
    Brain & Neurorehabilitation.2015; 8(2): 113.     CrossRef
Effect of Hydrogel Pad and Conventional Method on the Induction Time of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Ga Young Chung, Tae Rim Lee, Dae Jong Choi, Sung Su Lee, Mun Ju Kang, Won Chul Cha, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Keun Jeong Song, Yeon Kwon Jeong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):218-223.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.218
  • 2,409 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Therapeutic hypothermia has been recommended as a standard treatment of cardiac arrest patients after return of spontaneous circulation. There are various methods to drop patient's core body temperature below 33.5degrees C. We compared the cooling rate of the conventional cooling method using cold saline bladder irrigation with the commercial hydrogel pad in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients.
METHODS
We collected data retrospectively from the Samsung Medical Center hypothermia database. The conventional method group was cooled with IV infusion of 2,000 ml of 4degrees C cold saline and cold saline bladder irrigation. Patients in the hydrogel pad group had their body temperature lowered with the Artic Sun(R) after receiving 2,000 ml of 4degrees C cold saline intravenously. The induction time was defined as time from cold saline infusion to the esophageal core temperature below 33.5degrees C. The esophageal temperature probe insertion to the target temperature time (ET to target BT time) was defined as the time from the esophageal probe insertion to the core temperature below 33.5degrees C. We compared these times and cooling rates between the two groups.
RESULTS
Eighty one patients were enrolled. Fifty seven patients were included in the hydrogel pad group and 24 patients were in the conventional group. There were no statistical differences of baseline characteristics between the two groups. The induction time of the conventional group (138 min., IQR 98-295) was shorter than that of the hydrogel pad group (190 min., IQR 140-250). The ET to target BT time of the conventional group (106 min., IQR 68-249) was shorter than that of the hydrogel pad group (163 min., IQR 108-222). The cooling rate of the conventional group (0.93degrees C/hr., IQR 0.58-2.08) was lower than that of the hydrogel pad group (1.05degrees C/hr., IQR 0.74-1.96). However, there were no statistical differences in the induction time, the ET to target BT time and the cooling rate between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS
There was no significant statistical difference of the cooling rate of the hydrogel pad and conventional method on the induction time of therapeutic hypothermia in Patients with OHCA. The conventional cooling method can be used as an effective and efficient way to lower OHCA patient's core body temperature during the induction phase of therapeutic hypothermia.
Favorable Outcomes in Septic Shock Patients without Hyperlactatemia or Severe Organ Failure
Sung Jong Roh, Tae Gun Shin, Kyeongman Jeon, Gee Young Suh, Min Seob Sim, So Yeon Lim, Mun Ju Kang, Keun Jeong Song, Yeon Kwon Jeong, Ik Joon Jo
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):224-229.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.224
  • 2,198 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Septic shock is a pathophysiologic state of circulatory failure with tissue hypoperfusion. However, it is usually defined as sepsis-induced hypotension not responding to fluid resuscitation, regardless of the objective findings of tissue hypoperfusion such as lactic acidosis or organ failures. Numerous patients with sepsis-induced hypotension present to the emergency department without hyperlactemia or severe organ failure. Hence, we investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with septic shock according to the presence of hyperlactatemia or significant organ failure.
METHODS
We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients presenting with septic shock in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital between August 2008 and July 2010. Initial serum lactate was categorized low (<2.5 mmol/L) and high (> or =2.5 mmol/L). Organ failure was assessed by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS
A total of 227 patients were enrolled. There were 88 (38.8%) patients in the low lactate group, and 139 (61.2%) patients in the high lactate group. Patients with low lactate levels showed a lower mortality rate (6.8% compared with 25.1% of those with high lactate level). The low lactate group showed less rapid heart rate, less severe organ failures and shorter length of stay in the intensive care unit. During the early goal-directed therapy, they required a smaller amount of fluid administration and a lower dose of norepinephrine although other hemodynamic variables were similarly maintained. In particular, if patients showed less severe organ dysfunction (SOFA score < 8) in the low lactate group (n = 45), in-hospital mortality was 0% (adjusted mortality was 1.3% [95% confidence interval = 0.3-5.0]).
CONCLUSION
Patients with septic shock, who were enrolled according to the traditional definition, showed a very favorable outcome if they did not have hyperlactatemia or significant organ failure.
Gender Differences in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Sukwon Hahn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):230-236.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.230
  • 1,909 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Limited data are available for gender-based differences among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing coronary revascularization in Korea. The purpose of this study is to identify gender-based differences in clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcomes among Korean patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
METHODS
Patients with AMI undergoing PCI between Jan 2009 and Sep 2011 were included (n = 457) in the study. Clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors as well as major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including death after PCI, were compared between women (n = 134) and men (n = 323).
RESULTS
Women were older (69.8 +/- 10.7 vs. 60.0 +/- 11.7 years, p < .001) and had more comorbidities, such as diabetes (44.0% vs. 32.8%, p = .025) and hypertension (64.9% vs. 48.9%, p = .002) compared to men. Women were less likely to have a smoking history (p < .001). There were no significant differences in all causes of death and in MACE between women and men. By the multivariate analysis, age, HDL-cholesterol and left ventricle ejection fraction are associated with mortality and MACE.
CONCLUSIONS
In this study, women did not emerge as an independent predictor for MACE; however, they were older and had a higher incidence of hypertension and diabetes than men.
Analysis of Prognostic Factors Early in Emergency Department (ED) and Late in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Critically Ill Patients Admitted in the ICU via ED
Ru Bi Jeong, Jung Hwan An, Hyun Min Jun, Sung Min Jeong, Tae Yong Shin, Young Sik Kim, Young Rock Ha
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):237-248.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.237
  • 2,149 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Many critically ill patients in the ED are hospitalized to the ICU, but most prognosis predicting systems have been developed based on the physiochemical variables of the critically ill in the ICU. The objective of this study is to identify prognostic predictors early in the ED when compared with well-known predictors in the ICU and estimate their predictive abilities.
METHODS
An observational prospective study was performed in an urban ED. Information of all the critically ill patients admitted to the ICU via the ED including vital signs, laboratory results, and physiochemical scoring systems were checked during 6 months and divided into the early stage for the ED and the late stage in the ICU. Poor outcome was defined as 28-days mortality. After checking for significant predictors among them through univariate analysis, we identified the most discriminating predictors in each stage using logistic regression and a decision tree analysis.
RESULTS
A total of 246 patients were enrolled. In univariate analysis, the significant predictors including central venous pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), albumin, mortality in emergency department sepsis, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, simplified acute physiology score II, and sequential organ failure assessment scores were identified in the early stage, while PaO2/FiO2, base excess, unmeasured anion, albumin, anion gap, albumin-corrected anion gap, APACHEII, SAPSII, SOFA, and rapid emergency medicine score were identified in the late stage. Through a decision tree analysis, PaO2/FiO2 and SAPSII were revealed as the most discriminating predictors in the ED and ICU, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The prognosis discriminating predictor in critical patients was different between the ED and ICU. Emergency physicians should pay more attention to the critical patients having low PaO2/FiO2.
Determination of the Cause of Pleural Effusion in ICU Patients with Thoracentesis
Tae Yun Park, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Chang Hoon Lee, Jae Joon Yim, Chul Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Seok Chul Yang, Sang Min Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):249-254.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.249
  • 2,146 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Pleural effusion is a common and important problem in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, only few studies have focused on the etiology of pleural effusion in the ICU. The aim of this study is to elucidate the etiology of pleural effusion in ICU patients in a tertiary care hospital.
METHODS
Patients with pleural effusion in the medical ICU (MICU) and in the emergency ICU (EICU) were studied retrospectively from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009. The etiology and profile of pleural effusion were analyzed.
RESULTS
Of 1,592 patients admitted to the MICU and EICU during the study period, 78 patients (4.8%) underwent thoracentesis. The mean age was 66.8 +/- 13.3 years, and 52 (66.7%) were men. Parapneumonic effusion (32/78, 41%) was the leading cause of all effusions; malignancy- and heart failure-related effusions accounted for 15 (19.2%) and 14 (17.7%) cases, respectively. Fifteen patients (19.2%) had tube insertion after thoracentesis; in these patients, parapneumonic effusion or empyema was the most common reason for drainage (9/15, 60%). Pneumothorax developed after thoracentesis in 2 patients.
CONCLUSIONS
Diagnostic thoracentesis was performed in 4.8% of patients admitted to the ICU; one-fifth of these cases required therapeutic drainage. Parapneumonic effusion was the most common cause of pleural effusion in the ICU in this study.
The Changing Pattern of Blood Glucose Levels and Its Association with In-hospital Mortality in the Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia
Ki Tae Kim, Byung Kook Lee, Hyoung Youn Lee, Geo Sung Lee, Yong Hun Jung, Kyung Woon Jeung, Hyun Ho Ryu, Byoeng Jo Chun, Jeong Mi Moon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):255-262.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.255
  • 2,391 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of blood glucose during therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and the association between in-hospital mortality and blood glucose in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors (OHCA) treated with TH.
METHODS
The OHCA treated with TH between 2008 and 2011 were identified and analyzed. Blood glucose values were measured every hour during TH and collected. Mean blood glucose and standard deviation (SD) were calculated using blood glucose values during the entire TH period and during each phase of TH. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS
One hundred twenty patients were analyzed. The non-shockable rhythm (OR = 8.263, 95% CI 1.622-42.094, p = 0.011) and mean glucose value during induction (OR = 1.010, 95% CI 1.003-1.016, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The blood glucose values decreased with time, and median glucose values were 161.0 (116.0-228.0) mg/dl, 128.0 (102.0-165.0) mg/dl, and 105.0 (87.5-129.3) mg/dl during the induction, maintenance, and rewarming phase, respectively. The 241 (180-309) mg/dl of the median blood glucose value before TH was significantly lower than 183 (133-242) mg/dl of the maximal median blood glucose value during the cooling phase (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
High blood glucose was associated with in-hospital mortality in OHCA treated with TH. Therefore, hyperglycaemia during TH should be monitored and managed. The blood glucose decreased by time during TH. However, it is unclear whether TH itself, insulin treatment or fluid resuscitation with glucose-free solutions affects hypoglycaemia.
The Frequency of Defibrillation Related to the Survival Rate and Neurological Outcome in Patients Surviving from Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest
Sung Yeol Hyun, Jae Ho Jang, Jin Joo Kim, Hyuk Jun Yang, Woo Jin Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):263-268.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.263
  • 2,707 View
  • 22 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Early defibrillation is the treatment of choice in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) with initial shockable rhythms. However, the relationship between the frequency of defibrillation and neurological outcome was not clear. In this study, the frequency of defibrillation and other factors related to neurological outcome were investigated.
METHODS
Records of 255 adult patients, who were admitted to the hospital after resuscitation from OHCA between November 2008 and March 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. 6 months after the return of spontaneous circulation, patients were divided into two groups based on the cerebral performance category (CPC) score for neurologic prognosis. The frequency of defibrillation during resuscitation and other variables were analyzed between the two groups.
RESULTS
In the study group, initial rhythm was divided into two groups, non shockable rhythm (200, 78.4%) and shockable rhythm (55, 21.6%). The frequency of 1-7 defibrillations was significantly associated with good neurological outcome (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.328-6.850). In addition, shockable initial rhythm (OR 4.520, 95% CI 1.953-10.459), arrest caused cardiac origin (OR 2.945, 95% CI 1.334-6.500), time to BLS (OR 1.139, 95% CI 1.033-1.256) and lower APACHII score (OR 1.095, 95% CI 1.026-1.169), which were associated with good neurological outcomes, independently.
CONCLUSIONS
In those patients who survived from OHCA, adequate defibrillation was important to improve the neurological outcome, whether the initial rhythm was shockable or not. Frequency of 1-7 times defibrillation was associated with good neurological outcome.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Factors Influencing Survival of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest with Cardiac Etiology
    Su-Yeon Jeong, Chul-Woung Kim, Sung-Ok Hong
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2016; 17(2): 560.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Successful Recovery after Cardiac Arrest from Medically Intractable Coronary Spasm Induced by Ergonovine, Using Percutaneous Cardiopulmonary Support: A Case Report
Jeehoon Kang, In Chang Hwang, Chang Hwan Yoon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):269-273.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.269
  • 2,054 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The ergonovine provocation test is often used in diagnosing variant angina. Most patients with an ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasm respond promptly to intracoronary nitroglycerin administration within 3 to 5 minutes. However, in a few patients ergonovine results in serious cardiovascular complications due to intractable coronary artery spasm. We report a case of a severe and medically intractable coronary spasm induced by ergonovine, followed by cardiac arrest. Aided by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) and mechanical ventilation, the patient could survive after four days of hospitalization despite a recurrent vasospasm. Recovery was largely attributed to full supportive care and the use of PCPS.
Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia in a 5-month-old Boy with Agammaglobulinemia: A Case Report
Bo Hyun Chung, Hyo Kyoung Nam, Young Jun Rhie, Kwang Chul Lee, Ji Tae Choung, Choon Hak Lim, Young Yoo
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):274-278.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.274
  • 1,975 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. jiroveci) pneumonia is known as a common opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immunity. Underlying disease or conditions related to the development of P. jiroveci pneumonia include acquired immunodeficiency syndromes, as well as malignancies and congenital immune deficiency disorders. We describe a 5-month-old boy without significant medical history who was admitted at our hospital because of fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy whose condition became worse within several hours after admission. A chest X-ray showed bilateral diffuse infiltration and high resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with P. jiroveci pneumonia by direct immunofluorescent antibody staining from lung biopsy and he was later diagnosed with agammaglobulinemia. Although the boy was treated with antibiotics, high-dose corticosteroids and mechanical ventilation, he expired on the 5th hospital day. Here, we report the case of P. jiroveci pneumonia in a boy with agammaglobulinemia.
Successful Management of Potential Non-Heart-Beating Donor with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report
Young Hwan Kim, Gui Yun Sohn, Yooun Joong Jung, Kyu Hyouck Kyoung, Suk Kyung Hong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):279-282.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.279
  • 2,413 View
  • 21 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hemodynamics of a brain-dead donor can change rapidly during management. It frequently leads to loss of the donor or deterioration of organ functions. Various efforts have been made not to lose potential donors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and non-heart-beating donation (NHBD) are good examples of such efforts. A 47 year-old woman with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation was diagnosed with cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed three times before transfer to our hospital. Her family agreed to organ donation. ECMO was applied due to her unstable vital signs, which made the first declaration of brain death possible. However, considering the deteriorating vital signs and expected cardiac arrest, it was decided to switch to NHBD under the family's consent. All life-support devices including ECMO were turned off in the operation room. After cardiac death was declared, the harvesting of liver and kidneys was performed with perfusion through an ECMO catheter. The liver and kidneys were successfully transplanted to three recipients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation Cadaver Donors: What about Tissues Used as Allografts?
    Gregorio Marchiori, Matteo Berni, Giorgio Cassiolas, Leonardo Vivarelli, Nicola Francesco Lopomo, Milena Fini, Dante Dallari, Marco Govoni
    Membranes.2021; 11(7): 545.     CrossRef
  • The Use of Extracorporeal Circulation in Suspected Brain Dead Organ Donors with Cardiopulmonary Collapse
    Hyun Lee, Yang Hyun Cho, Kiick Sung, Jeong Hoon Yang, Chi Ryang Chung, Kyeongman Jeon, Gee Young Suh
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(12): 1911.     CrossRef
  • Successful Transplantation of Organs from a Donor with Bacterial Meningitis Caused byStreptococcus pneumonia- A Case Report -
    Eunjung Park, Sang-Cheon Choi, Youngjoo Lee, Yoonseok Jung, Younggi Min
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2013; 28(2): 115.     CrossRef
A Case of Metformin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury without Lactic Acidosis: A Case Report
Hae Ryong Jeong, Jeong Im Choi, Jung Hwan Park, Sang Mo Hong, Joon Sung Park, Chang Beom Lee, Yong Soo Park, Dong Sun Kim, Woong Hwan Choi, You Hern Ahn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):283-285.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.283
  • 3,207 View
  • 103 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Metformin is an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class, which is used for type 2 diabetes. The side effects of metformin are mostly limited to digestive tract symptoms, such as diarrhea, flatulence and abdominal discomfort. The most serious potential adverse effect of metformin is lactic acidosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted due to hypoglycemia as a result of an overdose of antidiabetic drugs. He took massive dose of metformin. Conservative treatment failed for metabolic acidosis without lactic acidosis accompanied by acute kidney injury. Hemodialysis was executed to correct the high anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury, and the patient recovered fully from metabolic acidosis. This case illustrates that the presence of clinical conditions, such as metformin-induced acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis, can be developed without lactic acidosis. Prompt recognition of metabolic acidosis and early intervention with hemodialysis can result in a successful clinical outcome.
Successful Brain Dead Donor Management with CRRT: A Case Report
Sang Hyun Lim, Young Joo Lee, Han Bum Joe, Jae Moung Lee, In Kyung Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):286-289.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.286
  • 3,196 View
  • 46 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Brain death results in adverse pathophysiologic effects in many brain-dead donors with cardiovascular instability. We experienced a brain-dead donor with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) who was in a severe metabolic, electrolyte derangement and poor pulmonary function. The thirty-nine-year-old male patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage was admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU). After sudden cardiac arrest, he went into a coma state and was referred to as a potential organ donor. When he was transferred, his vital sign was unstable even under the high dose of inotropics and vasopressors. Even with aggressive treatment, the level of blood sugar was 454 mg/dl, serum K+ 7.1 mEq/L, lactate 5.33 mmol/L and PaO2/FiO2 60.3. We decided to start CRRT with the mode of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). After 12 hours of CRRT, vital sign was maintained well without vasopressors, and blood sugar, serum potassium and lactate levels returned to 195 of PaO2/FiO2. Therefore, he was able to donate his two kidneys and his liver.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Activation Policy for Brain-dead Organ Donation
    Young-Joo Lee
    The Ewha Medical Journal.2015; 38(1): 1.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care