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Volume 15 (2); November 2000
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Original Article
Molecular Biologic Study on the Changes of Glutamate Receptor (mGluR5) in Rat Hippocampus after Brain Ischemia
Hae Kyu Kim, Pyong Ju Kim, Seong Wan Baik, Inn Se Kim, Kyoo Sub Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):75-81.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) participate in the induction of synaptic plasticity phenomena, such as long-term potentiation and long-term depression that are thought to be at the origin of learning and memory. They are also likely to play a role in modulating glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. It will become apparent that mGluRs are excellent targets for the development of drugs that modulate excitatory synaptic transmission. But there were several controversies about the exact role of group 1 mGluRs subtype 5 (mGluR5). This study was designed for evaluation of the neuroprotective role of mGluR5.
METHODS
Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, control, MK-801 and lamotrigine. The hippocampus and basal ganglia were removed at 6 hours and 3 days after the one hour transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The gene expression of mRNA of the brain samples were evaluated by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique.
RESULTS
The gene expression of mGluR5 mRNA in hippocampus was increased by 101.96 +/- 18.45% at 6 hours after ischemia and decreased by 50.70 +/- 15.73% at 3 days after ischemia (p<0.01). MK-801 and lamotrigine attenuated the ischemia-induced increases of gene expression of mGluR5 mRNA. In MK-801 group, the expression in basal ganglia was increased by only 0.23 +/- 5.41% at 6 hours after ischemia and decreased by 9.82 +/- 4.35% at 3 days after ischemia. In MK-801 group, the expression in hippocampus was decreased by 3.45 +/- 8.24% and 9.35 5.69% at 6 hours and 3 days after ischemia. In lamotrigine group, the expressions in hippocampus and basal ganglia were decreased by 26.66 +/- 9.85% and 9.45 +/- 5.22% at 6 hours after ischemia.
CONCLUSIONS
From these results, the role of mGluR5 was defined as a mediator for neuronal damage after transient focal cerebral ischemia in hippocampus and basal ganglia.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Comparison of the Efficacy between Ketamine and Morphine on Sedation and Analgesia in Patients with Mechanical Ventilation
Tae Hyung Kim, Chae Man Lim, Tae Sun Shim, Sang Do Lee, Woo Sung Kim, Dong Soon Kim, Won Dong Kim, Younsuck Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):82-87.
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  • 62 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
While the combination therapy of morphine and benzodiazepine has been recommended as a standard therapy for sedation and analgesia in patients with mechanical ventilation, morphine can suppress respiratory center, and also decrease blood pressure and bowel movement. Because ketamine has analgesic and sedative effects compatible to morphine without depression of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in addition to the preservation of bowel activity, ketamine may substitute morphine. However, it has not well known such potential advantages of ketamine in patients with mechanical ventilation.
METHODS
Thirty eight patients (male:female=30:8, age=62.6 +/- 11.7 years) with mechanical ventilation were randomized as ketamine and morphine group (n=21 vs. n=17). There was no significant differences in sex, age and APACHE III score at the initiation of mechanical ventilation (ketamine group, morphine group: 79.4 +/- 2.0, 82.0 +/- 20.6). The study duration was 24 h after drug administration and minimum dose, which maintains ventilator-patient synchrony or the status of Ramsay score 3, was used. Ramsay sedation score, hemodynamic variables, respiratory and arterial blood gas variables, and bowel sound were measured at every 4 h. Arterial blood gas analysis was checked at 0, 4, and 24 h.
RESULTS
1) There were no significant differences in Ramsay sedation score and other hemodynamic, respiratory, and arterial blood gas variables in each group. The dose of combined midazolam was not different between two groups (ketamine vs. morphine; 52.1 +/- 11.9 vs. 46.7 +/- 15.1 mg/d; p=0.23). 2) The cases with decreased mean arterial pressure over 25% of the baseline shortly after the drug administration less frequently observed in ketamine group, although the difference did not reach statistical significance (n=2, 9.5% vs. n=5, 29.4%; p=0.12). 3) Bowel movement reduction at 4 h after the drug administration was less in ketamine group (n=1, 4.8% vs. n=6, 35.3%, p=0.03). The difference was not observed at 8 h. 4) Cost of the drug for 24 h was more expensive in ketamine group (dose & cost; 688 506 mg/d & 25,891 7,743 won vs. 40 +/- 18 mg/d, 15,814 +/- 4,853 won; p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Considering the advantages in the hemodynamics and bowel movement, ketamine may substitute morphine for the sedation of patients with mechanical ventilation, if indicated.
Original Articles
Hemodynamic Effect of Pulmonary Artery Ligation during Pneumonectomy
Kwang Ho Lee, Hyun Kyo Lim, Eun Sung Jun, Young Bok Lee, Kyung Bong Yoon, Jae Chan Choi, Soon Yul Kim, Ryung Choi
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):88-92.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Pulmonary artery ligation during pneumonectomy increase the pulmonary blood flow of dependent lung and may increase the pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic effect of pulmonary artery ligation during pneumonectomy.
METHODS
Nine patients who were supposed to receive pneumonectomy were studied. Hemodynamic measurements were performed following two lung ventilation (TLV), one lung ventilation (OLV), after pulmonary artery ligation and after pneumonectomy.
RESULTS
There is no significant differences in heart rate, systemic arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance index. Arterial oxygen tension significantly reduced during OLV and increased after pulmonary artery ligation and after pneumonectomy.
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that pulmonary artery ligation during pneumonectomy may not affect the cardiopulmonary hemodynamics.
Clinical Survey of Appropriate Cuff Volume and Pressure during General Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients
Dong Suk Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):93-97.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Uncuffed endotracheal tubes are commonly used in pediatrics even when the risk of gastric aspiration is significant. But cuffed endotracheal tubes effectively protect the risk of pulmonary aspiration and completely seal the airway. This study was designed to determine the appropriate cuff volume and pressure with low risk of ischemic injury to children's airway.
METHODS
We intubated cuffed endotracheal tube (internal diameter 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 mm) in 90 surgical pediatric patient from 16 to 118 months of age. After intubation, initial cuff volume and pressure were measured at the level of complete sealing in each group. Each group was administrated 50% nitrous oxide and 67% nitrous oxide and measured cuff pressure at 20 minutes, 40 minutes.
RESULTS
1) The mean initial cuff volume and pressure of 4.5 ID tube were 0.59 +/- 0.16 ml and 14.5 +/- 0.31 cmH2O (n=30). 2) The mean initial cuff volume and pressure of 5.0 ID tube were 1.00 +/- 0.38 ml and 14.3 +/- 3.55 cmH2O (n=30). 3) The mean initial cuff volume and pressure of 5.5 ID tube were 1.06 +/- 0.26 ml and 14.28 +/- 2.01 cmH2O (n=30). 4) The cuff pressure increased significantly in the course of time, but no pressure in three groups was above 30 cmH2O.
CONCLUSIONS
We could determine the appropriate cuff volume of cuffed endotracheal tube in pediatric patients. Also we concluded that nitrous oxide concentration affect little intracuff pressure in brief operation.
Clinical Evaluation of One Lung Ventilation during General Anesthesia
Seung Woon Lim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):98-101.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Separation of two lungs during anesthesia is necessary for the purpose of isolation of one lung from the other to prevent spillage or contamination and facilitating surgical exposure by collapsing the lung in the operative hemithorax. Several techniques are available for providing one-lung anesthesia. This study was performed to evaluate which technique is favored and why it is favored for one-lung ventilation.
METHODS
We studied 70 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery aided by collapse of the ipsilateral lung. We analyzed frequency of each technique, efficacy of lung collapse, adequacy of one-lung ventilation, blood gases and complications.
RESULTS
In the 63 patients out of 70 patients, the double-lumen tubes were used. Left-sided were used in 57 patients and right-sided were used in 6 patients. There were 3 complications: tracheal rupture, right bronchial rupture and post-operative edema of vocal cords. Bronchial blockers were inserted in 7 patients. It was failed in two cases. Ventilation and oxygenation were respectively good in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS
We favored the double-lumen endotrachial tube than Univent blocker. Malposition was frequently seen with the Univent and serious complication was occasionally seen with the double-lumen tube. However surgical exposure and oxygenation was provided with any method, when position was corrected adequately.
Decreased Phenytoin Absorption in Patients with Continuous Enteral Feedings
Eun Kyong Roe, Hye Kyung Kim, Sung Hui Lim, Bo Sook Ahn, Chang Gyoo Byun, Jung Goo Cho, Cheung Soo Shin
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):102-107.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This report supports interactions between phenytoin and both enteral feeding products and nasogastric feeding tube. Five patients in ICU were treated with intravenous phenytoin, which yield detectable therapeutic serum concentrations. After switching to a comparable phenytoin capsule administered by nasogastric feeding tube, their serum phenytoin concentration fell to below assay sensitivity concentrations. Two of them experienced seizures. They were administered by intravenous phenytoin again or another antiepileptic drug, so the seizures were controlled. Some fact of decreased phenytoin absorption in enteral feeding patients is that phenytoin interact enteral feeding product and adhere the nasogastric feeding tube itself. We conclude that it is necessary to use phenytoin with caution in enteral feeding patients.
Case Reports
Continuous Infusion of Ketamine in Mechanically Ventilated Patient in Septic Shock with Status Asthmaticus
Bon Nyeo Koo, Shin Ok Koh, Sung Yong Park, Jae Kwang Shim, Sung Sik Chon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):108-112.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ketamine is well known for its analgesic, bronchodilating and sympathetic stimulating effect. Hence, it has been widely used for induction of patients with hypotension or asthma and also for analgesic and sedating purposes in the ICU. We presented a 62 year old female patient with ventilator support in septic shock with refractory asthma whom we managed successfully with continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine postoperatively in the ICU. The patient had a history of asthma but had been asymptomatic recently and was scheduled for an emergent explo-laparotomy under the diagnosis of acute panperitonitis. Before the induction of anesthesia, the patient was in septic shock but no wheezing could be auscultated. After the induction of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation, wheezing was apparent in both lung fields with a high peak inspiratory pressure. Inotropics, vasopressors and bronchodilators were promptly instituted without any improvement of asthma and the patient had to be transferred to the ICU with intubated after the operation. Clinical symptoms of asthma continued throughout the first day despite using bronchodilators under mechanical ventilation but, after starting the IV infusion of ketamine, there were decrease in the peak inspiratory pressure and wheezing with a subsequent improvement in the arterial blood gas analysis findings. We could also achieve considerable analgesic and sedating effect without any decrease in the blood pressure. The patient's general physical status improved and weaning with extubation was successfully done on the 21st day and was transferred to the general ward on the 28th day.
Vagal Reflex Induced Bronchospasm
Tae Hyeong Kim, Yong Lak Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(2):113-116.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The parasympathetic nervous system has been considered to have an important role in bronchospasm. Although vagal reflexes are well documented in animal models of airway hyperresponsiveness, their importance in asthmatic attacks in man is less documented. We report a case of bronchospasm during sclera buckling operation and we believe that this patient's bronchospasm was induced by the vagal reflex.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care