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Volume 13 (1); June 1998
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Reviews
Management of the Hemodynamically Unstable Patient
Jin Mo Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):1-6.
  • 1,287 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Hormone-like Circulation-Regulatory Substances in Cardiovascular System
Sioh Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):7-14.
  • 1,144 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Brain Protection: Pharmacological Aspect
Jong Hoon Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):15-20.
  • 1,135 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Pathophysiology of Acute Brain Injury
Kyeong Tae Min
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):21-24.
  • 1,250 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
The Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on the Reactivity of Isolated Rat Trachea with or without Epithelium
Hyo Chul Shin, Yoon Hee Kim, Dong Sik Hur, Seok Hwa Yoon, Yong Sup Shin, Sae Jin Choi
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):25-32.
  • 1,169 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces increase in the production of nitric oxide (NO), or a related substance derived from L-arginine in the animal tissue. Recent evidence indicates that airway epithelium may secrete NO or a related compound. It has multiple regulatory roles in the airways. In vitro, the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the reactivity of rat' tracheal wall with or without epithelium were examined.
METHODS
Tracheas were removed from Sprague Dawley rats. Preparations were mounted for isometric recording in 20ml organ baths at 37degrees C containing Tis-buffered Tyrode solution continuously gassed with 100% O2. Tensions were measured with force displacement transducers and responses were recorded on a polygraph. Cummulative concentration-response curves were constructed for acetylcholine (Ach) in the tracheal strips with or without preincubation of Escherichia coli LPS (100 mcg/ml, 5hrs). And then effects of NO synthase inhibitors and removal of epithelium were examined.
RESULTS
In isolated perfused tracheas preincubated by LPS, both removed epithelium and intact epithelium of rat tracheal rings showed decreased Ach-induced contraction. In intact epithelium group, 10 (-5)M L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), 10 (-5)M L-arginine or dexamethasone pretreatment was restored in Ach-induced contraction response. But in the removed epithelium group, Ach-induced contraction was potentiated by L-arginine pretreatment and was not restored by the pretreatment of L-NAME and dexamethasone.
CONCLUSIONS
The results suggest that nitric oxide synthase is induced by endotoxin in the tracheal epithelium, resulting in inhibition of the contractile response.
The Effects of Repeated Toluene Exposure on Amino Acid Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain
Hae Kyu Kim, Seung Kyung Baeck, Sie Jeong Ryu, Inn Se Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):33-42.
  • 1,247 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: It was aimed to investigate the effect of chronic toluene exposure on amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat brain, corpus striatum.
METHODS
Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into one of three groups, control, acute, and chronic. Each groups was for the microdialysis to estimate the changes of amino acid neurotransmitters, aspartate, glutamate, and citrulline before, during, and after 3,000 ppm toluene exposure for 2 hours.
RESULTS
The results were as follows; 1) Aspartate and glutamate concentration were generally decreased in the toluene inhalation groups compared with the control group and more significantly decreased in chronic inhalation group than other groups. 2) Citrulline that expressed the activity of nitric oxide synthase and taurine as an inhibitory amino acid showed no significant differences between all groups. Based on these results, it is suggested that the decreasing excitatory amino acids, aspartate and glutamate, are partly contributed to the toxic mechanisms of toluene in rat brain.
The Effect of Brain Hypothermia on Brain Edema Formation after Transient Ischemia
Seung Sig Kang, Kyu Taek Choi, Chung Gill Leem, In Hea Cho, Sung Lyang Chung, Pyung Hwan Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):43-48.
  • 1,155 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: When ischemia reduces blood supply, hypothermia remains the sine qua non for reducing demand. An alternative to whole body deep hypothermia is an isolated cerebral hypothermia via perfusion of cooled blood through one internal carotid artery. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of isolated cold hemisphere perfusion during the cerebral ischemia on the formation of brain edema.
METHODS
The studies were designed to perfuse a saline solution into both carotid arteries with a different temperature (left 15degreesC, right 38degreesC) in the same animal. Cerebral ischemia was produced by a combination of the both carotid artery saline perfusion and systemic hypotension to a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg for 10 minutes. Ninety minutes after reperfusion, brain water contents were measured using the kerosene/bromobenzene density gradient and compared with warm saline perfusion and normal control group.
RESULTS
Brain water content of cold saline perfusion hemisphere measured at 90 minutes after ischemia showed decreased water content compared to warm saline perfusion hemisphere (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Cerebral cold saline perfusion during the ischemia decreased the formation of brain edema. These results showed hypothemia is one of the most effective ways to protect brain from the ischemia.
Intraoperative Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity and Postoperative Complication of Radical Neck Dissection Retrospective Study
Tae Il Kim, Hae Ja Lim, Seong Ho Chang, Nan Sook Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):49-54.
  • 1,307 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Postoperative complications in the geriatric patients undergoing radical neck dissection are generally considered to be more severe than young patients. The incidence of carotid sinus hypersensitivity in elderly patients is also considered to be higher than the young. The comparison between old (above 65 years) and young (below 65 years) aged groups about intraoperative carotid sinus hypersensitivity and postoperative complication is necessary for safe anesthesia.
METHODS
Sixty five adult patients, of either sex, regardless of age, given radical neck dissection from January 1990 to January 1998, were investigated for the incidence of intraoperative carotid sinus hypersensitivity and postoperative hypertension by way of retrospective chart review. The authors also examined the postoperative complications such as high fever, pulmonary, cardiac and renal complications, cerebrovascular diseases and neurologic injuries.
RESULTS
The incidence of intraoperative carotid sinus hypersensitivity were 28% in elderly patients (n=25), 10% in young patients (n=40) but there was no statistical significance. The incidence of postoperative hypertension were 79.1% in patients with hypertension history, 34.1% in patients without hypertension history and there was statistical significance between the two groups (P=0.001). The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complication were 44% in elderly patients, 20% in young patients, and there was also statistical significance between the two groups (P=0.038). There was no statistical significance in the incidence of postoperative high fever above 38.5degrees C between the two groups (p=0.059).
CONCLUSION
After the radical neck dissection, the geriatric patients had a greater incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications than young patients and the most relating factor to postoperative hypertension was previous history of hypertension. Therefore optimal preoperative preparations for the hypertensive patients and the prevention and immediate treatment of the postoperative pulmonary complications in geriatric patients are very important during the radical neck dissection.
Clinical Study of Diffusion Hypoxia in Early Period after Nitrous Oxide Anesthesia
Hae Keum Kil, Won Oak Kim, Sung Jin Lee, Woo Kyung Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):55-60.
  • 1,533 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: Anesthesiologists have been aware of the dangers of diffusion hypoxia in the early postoperative period after nitrous oxide anesthesia, but it was suggested of a little clinical significance in healthy patients. Goal of this study is to re-evaluate the possibility of diffusion hypoxia.
METHODS
Eighty patients who were scheduled for vitrectomy were allocated to two groups by normal and abnormal chest X-ray findings and each group was divided into two subgroups by N2O concentration (1-a, 2-a; 50%, 1-b, 2-b; 60%). One and half hours after anesthesia, end-tidal alveolar concentration of oxygen (et-O2), N2O (et-N2O), and PaO2 were measured for 10 minutes after the inspired gases were changed to room air 2 L/minute with controlled ventilation in group 1-a. Those parameters were re-measured after re-administration of O2 and N2O of 50% of each for an hour and the inpired gases were changed to room air again.
RESULTS
In group 1-a, there was no significant differences of et-N2O and PaO2 after 5 minutes by air flow. And there was no differences of et-N2O and PaO2 between group 1-a and 1-b by et-N2O after 4 minutes. In group 1-b, PaO2 was in normal range at 10 minutes after, although et-O2 was decreased to 14.9%. However, group 2-b showed peripheral arterial saturation lower than 96% after 6 minutes and mild hypoxemia (PaO2 75.3 mmHg) at 10 minutes.
CONCLUSIONS
We suggest that hypoxemic episode during spontaneous breathing of room air in early postoperative period after nitrous oxide anesthesia may be occur due to decreased ventilatory function rather than diffusion of nitrous oxide. However, in patients with minimal abnormal chest X-ray findings even without clinical symptoms, it would be better to avoid high concentration of nitrous oxide.
Lung Injury Score in Predicting the Outcome of the Patients in the Intensive Care Unit
Shin Ok Koh, Se Sil Lee, Eun Chi Bang, Sung Won Na
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):61-66.
  • 1,495 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: Lung Injury Score (LIS) provides a quantitative method for scoring acute lung injury that usually occurs after sepsis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the LIS in prediction the patients outcome and determine the relationship between the LIS and mortality rate, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score and multiple organ failure (MOF) score.
METHODS
Patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Severance Hospital Yonsei University College of Medicine from November 1995 to March 1996 were included. LIS at admission and discharge, APACHE II score with MOF score and duration of ICU stay between survivors and nonsurvivors were compared. Relationship of LIS between mortality rate and APACHE II score and MOF score were evaluated.
RESULTS
LIS is higher in nonsurvivors than survivors at admission and discharge with statistical significance. LIS of survivors and nonsurvivors at discharge was lower and higher than those at admission (p<0.05) respectively. Correlation coeffcient of LIS with mortality rate, MOF score and APACHE II score were 0.60 (p<0.05), 0.23 and 0.17.
CONCLUSIONS
LIS score was highly correlated with mortality rate. Therefore LIS is a good predictor of outcome in the intensive care unit.
Comparison of Hemodynamic Changes by the Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance Device during Endotracheal Intubation or Insertion of Laryngeal Mask Airway in General Anesthesia
Han Mok You, Jin Mo Kim, Jae Kyu Cheun
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):67-72.
  • 1,418 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: we measured the hemodynamic changes by the thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) device during induction of anesthesia, endotracheal intubation or insertion of layngeal mask airway (LMA). This TEB device is safe, reliable and estimate continuously and invasively hemodynamic variables.
METHODS
We measured the cardiovascular response of endotracheal intubation or that of LMA insertion in thirty ASA class I patients. General anesthesia was induced with injection of fentany 1 microgram/kg, thiopetal sodium 5 mg/kg and vecuronium 1 mg/kg intravenously. Controlled ventilation was for 3 minutes with inhalation of 50% nitrous oxide and 1.5 vol% of enflurane before tracheal intubation or LMA insertion in all patients. The patient was randomly assinged to either tracheal intubation group (ET group) or laryngeal mask airway group (LMA group). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index (SI) and cardic index (CI) were measured to pre-induction, pre-intubation, 1 minute after intubation, 2 minute, 3 minute, 5 minute, 7 minute.
RESULTS
MAP and SVR were decreased effectively LMA group than ET group during 1 minute after intubation, 2 minute, 3 minute, 5 minute, 7 minute (p<0.05). HR was decreased effectively LMA group than ET group between pre-induction and 1 minute after intubation, between 1 minute after intubation and 2 minute after intubation (p<0.05). But, SI and CI were no difference between ET group and LMA group during induction of anesthesia and intubation (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
The insertion of LMA is beneficial for certain patients than endotracheal tube to avoid harmful cardiovascular response in the management of airway during anesthesia.
Statistical Analysis of the Patients in the ICU by Using the APACHE II Scoring System
Young Joo Lee, Keum Hee Chung, Hyun Jue Gill, Kyung Jin Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Chang Whan Cho, Young Suk Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):73-78.
  • 1,390 View
  • 41 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: The APACHE II scoring system has been promulgated as a useful tool in the assessment of the severity of disease and prognosis for patients with acute-on-chronic medical conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the statistical association of APACHE II score and multiple variables in ICU patients.
METHODS
Prospective data on 803 ICU patients for validation of the APACHE II system were analysed. We evaluated the relationship between APACHE II scores within the first 24 hours of ICU admission and multiple variables that included days in the ICU, mortality rate and age. The patients were classified as operation and nonoperation, survival and nonsurvival groups.
RESULT
1) The APACHE II score was significantly higher in the 153 nonsurvivals (23.97+/-10.98) than in the 651 survivals (11.51+/-6.14) (p<0.05). 2) The mean APACHE II score of the nonoperation group (14.52+/-9.29) was significantly higher than operation group (12.40+/-7.30) (p<0.05). 3) The overall mortality rate was 17.8%. 4) All patients with an APACHE II score over 40 died.
CONCLUSION
The APACHE II score is statistically related with the mortality of critically ill patients.
Evaluation of Weaning Criteria from Mechanical Ventilatory Support
Young Joo Lee, Haeng Jae Kim, Taeg Hwan Bae, Sang Kun Han, Keum Hee Chung, Jang Wun Yun, Jae Woo Jin, Chol Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):79-84.
  • 1,359 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: A number of indices have been proposed as accurate predictors of weaning, but several studies have questioned the accuracy of these weaning indices in predicting the capability of independent breathing. The purpose of the study was to assess six standard bedside weaning criteria of mechanically ventilated patients in Surgical intensive care unit (SICM).
METHOD
: The study was performed on 72 SICU patients who were mechanically ventilated. According to the outcome of weaning, they were divided into two groups, weaning success (n=62) and weaning failure (n=10) group. All subjects should have PaO2 above 60 mm Hg at an FIO2 of 0.4 and PEEP of 3~5 cm H2O in the extubated patients and no PEEP in the tracheostomy patients. Six bedside weaning criteria were tidal volume above 5 ml/kg, respiratory rate below 25/min, vital capacity above 10 ml/kg, maximum inspiratory pressure below -20 cm H2O, minute volume below 10 L/min and PaO2/FIO2 above 200. Weaning failure was regarded as follows; changes of systolic blood pressure 20 mm Hg or diastolic pressure 10 mm Hg, changes of pulse rate 20 beat per minute, respiratory rate above 30 per minute or increased respiratory rate above 10 per minute, PaO2 below 60 mm Hg or PaCO2 above 55 mm Hg, and presence of paradoxical respiratory pattern.
RESULTS
PaO2/FIO2 and minute volume (VE) were showed statistically significant difference between two groups (P=0.048, P=0.003 respectively). Linear discriminant function was D=-1.422-0.005-xPaO2/FIO2+0.336xVE.
CONCLUSION
Our study demonstrates that PaO2/FIO2 and minute volume accurately predicts the weaning outcome in the surgical patients with mechanical support.
Case Reports
A Case of Pulmonary Aspiration during the Anesthetic Induction in the Post Total Gastrectomy Patient
Yoon Hee Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Moon Hee Park, Seok Hwa Yoon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):85-90.
  • 1,806 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents is a feared complication of anesthetic procedures. But aspiration of intestinal contents is rare, the influences of the aspirated contents and/or the consequnt events in the airway have not been fully settled in its provacative role for causing an acute pulmonary reaction. We experienced a case of pulmonary aspiration of intestinal content. The patinet who had undergone previous total gastrectomy was planed emergency operation due to intestinal obstructon. Aspiration during anesthetic induction occurred accidentally. Immediate endotracheal intubation and suction were followed. Right chest breathing sound was coarse and then it was getting better. Although supplement of O2 by Y-piece, arterial blood gas analysis of patient revealed pH 7.30, PaCO2 36 mmHg, PaO2 58 mmHg after emegence from anesthesia in the recovery room. Chest X-ray showed the focal air space consolidation in right lower lung and ill defined pulmonary opacity in left mid lung and retrocardiac area. The measured pH of aspiration content was 7.8 and nonpathogenic Gram negative bacilli species were cutured. Frequent suction, encouraging expectoration, antimicrobial agents therapy and O2 supplementation by Y-piece were performed in the ICU. Patient normalized following 24 hrs after the episode of aspiration.
Atelectasis Due to Epistaxis Aspiration during Awake Fiberoptic Nasotracheal Intubation
Ju Tae Sohn, Sang Jung Lee, Kyung Il Hwang, Heon Keun Lee, Sang Hwy Lee, Young Kyun Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):91-96.
  • 1,322 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Indication for fiberoptic intubation in an awake patient include almost any abnormality that may hinder the expeditious placement of an endotracheal tube during anesthetic induction. An epistaxis is the most frequent complication of nasotracheal intubation. The patient was admitted for open reduction and internal fixation due to severe mandible fracture. We experienced a case of atelectasis due to epistaxis aspiration during awake fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation in the conscious patient regionally anesthetized by both superior laryngeal nerve block and translaryngeal anesthesia, which is treated by saline irrigation, suction, active coughing and chest percussion.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care