Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

ACC : Acute and Critical Care



Page Path
HOME > Search
1 "prevention and control"
Article category
Publication year
Review Article
Prevention and management of delirium in critically ill adult patients in the intensive care unit: a review based on the 2018 PADIS guidelines
Seung Yong Park, Heung Bum Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(2):117-125.   Published online April 17, 2019
  • 19,728 View
  • 1,286 Download
  • 40 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Delirium is an acute, confusional state characterized by altered consciousness and a reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is associated with a number of complex underlying medical conditions and can be difficult to recognize. Many critically ill patients (e.g., up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit [ICU]) experience delirium due to underlying medical or surgical health problems, recent surgical or other invasive procedures, medications, or various noxious stimuli (e.g., underlying psychological stressors, mechanical ventilation, noise, light, patient care interactions, and drug-induced sleep disruption or deprivation). Delirium is associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU admittance as well as an increased risk of death, disability, and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, the early recognition of delirium is important and ICU medical staff should devote careful attention to both watching for the occurrence of delirium and its prevention and management. This review presents a brief overview of delirium and an update of the literature with reference to the 2018 Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption in Adult Patients in the ICU.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidence, characteristics and risk factors of delirium in the intensive care unit: An observational study
    Öznur Erbay Dalli, Nermin Kelebek Girgin, Ferda Kahveci
    Journal of Clinical Nursing.2023; 32(1-2): 96.     CrossRef
  • Sustained adherence to a delirium guideline five years after implementation in an intensive care setting: A retrospective cohort study
    Marlies van Bochove-Waardenburg, Mathieu van der Jagt, Janneke de Man-van Ginkel, Erwin Ista
    Intensive and Critical Care Nursing.2023; 76: 103398.     CrossRef
  • Impact of critical care pharmacist‐led interventions on pain, agitation, and delirium in mechanically ventilated adults: A systematic review
    Mitchell S. Buckley, Russel J. Roberts, Melanie J. Yerondopoulos, Audrey K. Bushway, Grace C. Korkames, Sandra L. Kane‐Gill
  • Delirium in the intensive care unit: a narrative review
    Stefania Renzi, Nicola Gitti, Simone Piva
    Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2023; 71(1): 22.     CrossRef
  • Delirio y su relación con la supervivencia en pacientes geriátricos con neumonía grave por SARS-CoV-2 en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención en México
    Cynthia Daniela Bazán Acevedo, Edgar Fernández Muñoz, Netzahualcóyotl González Pérez, Lilia López Carrillo
    Medicina Crítica.2023; 37(1): 35.     CrossRef
  • Effect of using eye masks and earplugs in preventing delirium in intensive care patients: A single‐blinded, randomized, controlled trial
    Gülşen Kiliç, Sultan Kav
    Nursing in Critical Care.2023; 28(5): 698.     CrossRef
  • Yoğun Bakım Deliryumunun Erken Tespitinde Rekalibre PRE-DELIRIC Modelinin Prospektif Değerlendirilmesi
    Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi.2023; 49(1): 55.     CrossRef
  • Still WALKing-FOR: 2-year sustainability of the ‘WALK FOR’ intervention
    Efrat Gil, Anna Zisberg, Efrat Shadmi, Nurit Gur-Yaish, Ksenya Shulyaev, Yehudith Chayat, Maayan Agmon
    Age and Ageing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Optimization of Care for the Elderly Surgical Emergency Patient
    Rachel Lynne Warner, Nadia Iwanyshyn, Donald Johnson, David J. Skarupa
    Surgical Clinics of North America.2023; 103(6): 1253.     CrossRef
  • Identification and Best Practice Management of Comorbid Geri-Psych Conditions in Critical Care
    Noel Koller-Ditto
    Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America.2023; 35(4): 481.     CrossRef
  • Inclusion of frailty improved performance of delirium prediction for elderly patients in the cardiac intensive care unit (D-FRAIL): A prospective derivation and external validation study
    Rongrong Guo, Shan Zhang, Saiying Yu, Xiangyu Li, Xinju Liu, Yanling Shen, Jinling Wei, Ying Wu
    International Journal of Nursing Studies.2023; 147: 104582.     CrossRef
  • Motion Detectors as Additional Monitoring Devices in the Intensive Care Unit—A Proof-of-Concept Study
    Gülmisal Güder, Eva von Rein, Thomas Flohr, Dirk Weismann, Dominik Schmitt, Stefan Störk, Stefan Frantz, Vincent Kratzer, Christian Kendi
    Applied Sciences.2023; 13(16): 9319.     CrossRef
  • Analytical Review of Unplanned Extubation in Intensive Care Units and Recommendation on Multidisciplinary Preventive Approaches
    Antonious Anis, Ravi Patel, Maged A Tanios
    Journal of Intensive Care Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The risk factors of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy: an updated meta-analysis
    Jinhua He, Ran Duan, Peng Qiu, Huanhuan Zhang, Meng Zhang, Meinv Liu, Xiaoqian Wu, Jianli Li
    Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sedation for Patients with Sepsis: Towards a Personalised Approach
    José Miguel Marcos-Vidal, Rafael González, María Merino, Eva Higuera, Cristina García
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(12): 1641.     CrossRef
  • Le delirium, un syndrome mal connu
    Jean-Pierre Bénézech
    La Revue de l'Infirmière.2022; 71(277): 42.     CrossRef
  • Associations of Smoking With Delirium and Opioid Use in Older Adults With Traumatic Hip Fracture
    Kristin Salottolo, Richard Meinig, Landon Fine, Michael Kelly, Robert Madayag, Francie Ekengren, Allen Tanner, David Bar-Or
    JAAOS: Global Research and Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • O papel do enfermeiro na prevenção do delirium no paciente adulto/idoso crítico
    Cláudia Oliveira, Cátia Filipa Garnacho Martins Nobre, Rita Margarida Dourado Marques, Maria Manuela Madureira Lebre Mendes, Patrícia Cruz Pontífice Sousa
    Revista Cuidarte.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predictors of sedation period for critical illness patients focusing on early rehabilitation on the bed
    Yosuke Morimoto, Tsubasa Watanabe, Masato Oikawa, Masatoshi Hanada, Motohiro Sekino, Tetsuya Hara, Ryo Kozu
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index predicts post-operative delirium in the elderly following thoracic and abdominal surgery: A prospective observational cohort study
    Jing Liu, Jianli Li, Jinhua He, Huanhuan Zhang, Meinv Liu, Junfang Rong
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Pain, Agitation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption Education on Novice Nurses in Adult Intensive Care Units
    Szu-Ying Lee, Chieh-Yu Liu, Te-Yu Wu
    Healthcare.2022; 10(8): 1538.     CrossRef
  • Pain Assessment with the BPS and CCPOT Behavioral Pain Scales in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Requiring Analgesia and Sedation
    Katarzyna Wojnar-Gruszka, Aurelia Sega, Lucyna Płaszewska-Żywko, Stanisław Wojtan, Marcelina Potocka, Maria Kózka
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(17): 10894.     CrossRef
  • Item analysis of the Korean version of the Intensive Care Experience Questionnaire: Using the Rasch Model based on Item Response Theory
    Jiyeon Kang, Minhui Kim
    Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing.2022; 15(3): 37.     CrossRef
  • Complex Hallucinations in Hospitalized Rehabilitation Patients With COVID-19
    Mari Tobita, Shan-Pin Fanchiang, Aida Saldivar, Sarah Taylor, Barry Jordan
    Archives of Rehabilitation Research and Clinical Translation.2022; 4(4): 100234.     CrossRef
  • Effects of uncomfortable care and histamine H2-antagonists on delirium in acute stroke: A propensity score analysis
    Tomoki Nakamizo, Toshie Kanda, Yosuke Kudo, Eriko Sugawara, Erina Hashimoto, Ayana Okazaki, Makoto Usuda, Toru Nagai, Hiroshi Hara, Ken Johkura
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences.2021; 420: 117251.     CrossRef
  • Critical Care Considerations for Damage Control in a Trauma Patient
    Shannon Gaasch
    AACN Advanced Critical Care.2021; 32(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Model for Sleep Disorders in the ICU: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Yun Li, Lina Zhao, Chenyi Yang, Zhiqiang Yu, Jiannan Song, Qi Zhou, Xizhe Zhang, Jie Gao, Qiang Wang, Haiyun Wang
    Frontiers in Neuroscience.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Delirium and Associated Length of Stay and Costs in Critically Ill Patients
    Claudia Dziegielewski, Charlenn Skead, Toros Canturk, Colleen Webber, Shannon M. Fernando, Laura H. Thompson, Madison Foster, Vanja Ristovic, Peter G. Lawlor, Dipayan Chaudhuri, Chintan Dave, Brent Herritt, Shirley H. Bush, Salmaan Kanji, Peter Tanuseputr
    Critical Care Research and Practice.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
  • Effects of a simulation‐based education programme on delirium care for critical care nurses: A randomized controlled trial
    Mu‐Hsing Ho, Lee‐Fen Yu, Pu‐Hung Lin, Hui‐Chen (Rita) Chang, Victoria Traynor, Wen‐Cheng Huang, Jed Montayre, Kee‐Hsin Chen
    Journal of Advanced Nursing.2021; 77(8): 3483.     CrossRef
  • A Note on Common Apathy versus Hypoactive Delirium in Critical Illness
    Jan N. M. Schieveld, Jacqueline J. M. H. Strik
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.2021; 203(7): 921.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Sedatives on In-hospital and Long-term Mortality of Critically Ill Patients Requiring Extended Mechanical Ventilation for ≥ 48 Hours
    Hannah Lee, Seongmi Choi, Eun Jin Jang, Juhee Lee, Dalho Kim, Seokha Yoo, Seung-Young Oh, Ho Geol Ryu
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Improving delirium detection in intensive care units: Multicomponent education and training program
    Liron Sinvani, Cynthia Delle Site, Tara Laumenede, Vidhi Patel, Suzanne Ardito, Anum Ilyas, Craig Hertz, Gisele Wolf‐Klein, Renee Pekmezaris, Negin Hajizadeh, Lily Thomas
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2021; 69(11): 3249.     CrossRef
  • Delirium in Critical Illness Patients and the Potential Role of Thiamine Therapy in Prevention and Treatment: Findings from a Scoping Review with Implications for Evidence-Based Practice
    Sandra Lange, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Adriano Friganovic, Ber Oomen, Sabina Krupa
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(16): 8809.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of an Attending Intensivist on the Clinical Outcomes of Patients Admitted to the Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
    Dong Jung Kim, Bongyeon Sohn, Hakju Kim, Hyoung Woo Chang, Jae Hang Lee, Jun Sung Kim, Cheong Lim, Kay-Hyun Park
    The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.2020; 53(1): 8.     CrossRef
    Juan Carlos Muñoz Camargo
    Enfermería Intensiva.2020; 31(2): 94.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of delirium according to the visiting regime in an intensive care unit
    J.C. Muñoz Camargo
    Enfermería Intensiva (English ed.).2020; 31(2): 94.     CrossRef
  • The Diagnostic Accuracy of Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) in ICU Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Yue Zhai, Shining Cai, Yuxia Zhang
    Journal of Pain and Symptom Management.2020; 60(4): 847.     CrossRef
  • Neurologic Manifestations of Systemic Disease: Sleep Disorders
    Eric M. Davis, Chintan Ramani, Mark Quigg
    Current Treatment Options in Neurology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Delirium
    Melissa L.P. Mattison
    Annals of Internal Medicine.2020; 173(7): ITC49.     CrossRef
  • Neurological Complications and Noninvasive Multimodal Neuromonitoring in Critically Ill Mechanically Ventilated COVID-19 Patients
    Denise Battaglini, Gregorio Santori, Karthikka Chandraptham, Francesca Iannuzzi, Matilde Bastianello, Fabio Tarantino, Lorenzo Ball, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Antonio Vena, Matteo Bassetti, Matilde Inglese, Antonio Uccelli, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, N
    Frontiers in Neurology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care