Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

ACC : Acute and Critical Care



Page Path
HOME > Search
1 "hepatic encephalopathy"
Article category
Publication year
Funded articles
Original Article
Early mechanical ventilation for grade IV hepatic encephalopathy is associated with increased mortality among patients with cirrhosis: an exploratory study
Saad Saffo, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):355-362.   Published online August 18, 2022
  • 3,738 View
  • 198 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Unresponsive patients with toxic-metabolic encephalopathies often undergo endotracheal intubation for the primary purpose of preventing aspiration events. However, among patients with pre-existing systemic comorbidities, mechanical ventilation itself may be associated with numerous risks such as hypotension, aspiration, delirium, and infection. Our primary aim was to determine whether early mechanical ventilation for airway protection was associated with increased mortality in patients with cirrhosis and grade IV hepatic encephalopathy.
The National Inpatient Sample was queried for hospital stays due to grade IV hepatic encephalopathy among patients with cirrhosis between 2016 and 2019. After applying our exclusion criteria, including cardiopulmonary failure, data from 1,975 inpatient stays were analyzed. Patients who received mechanical ventilation within 2 days of admission were compared to those who did not. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with in-hospital mortality.
Of 162 patients who received endotracheal intubation during the first 2 hospital days, 64 (40%) died during their hospitalization, in comparison to 336 (19%) of 1,813 patients in the comparator group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, mechanical ventilation was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in our primary analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.14–4.20; P<0.001) and in all sensitivity analyses.
Mechanical ventilation for the sole purpose of airway protection among patients with cirrhosis and grade IV hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Future studies are necessary to confirm and further characterize our findings.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development and validation of a nomogram for predicting in-hospital mortality of intensive care unit patients with liver cirrhosis
    Xiao-Wei Tang, Wen-Sen Ren, Shu Huang, Kang Zou, Huan Xu, Xiao-Min Shi, Wei Zhang, Lei Shi, Mu-Han Lü
    World Journal of Hepatology.2024; 16(4): 625.     CrossRef
  • Review article: Evaluation and care of the critically ill patient with cirrhosis
    Iva Kosuta, Madhumita Premkumar, K. Rajender Reddy
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.2024; 59(12): 1489.     CrossRef
  • Using machine learning methods to predict 28-day mortality in patients with hepatic encephalopathy
    Zhe Zhang, Jian Wang, Wei Han, Li Zhao
    BMC Gastroenterology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Experience in Non-invasive Ventilation in Grade 3 Hepatic Encephalopathy
    İlhan Ocak, Mustafa Çolak, Erdem Kınacı
    Istanbul Medical Journal.2023; 24(3): 295.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care