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Original Article
Nutrition
Effect of a nutritional support protocol on enteral nutrition and clinical outcomes of critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study
Heemoon Park, Sung Yoon Lim, Sebin Kim, Hyung-Sook Kim, Soyeon Kim, Ho Il Yoon, Young-Jae Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):382-390.   Published online July 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00220
  • 3,344 View
  • 248 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Enteral nutrition (EN) supply within 48 hours after intensive care unit (ICU) admission improves clinical outcomes. The “new ICU evaluation & development of nutritional support protocol (NICE-NST)” was introduced in an ICU of tertiary academic hospital. This study showed that early EN through protocolized nutritional support would supply more nutrition to improve clinical outcomes.
Methods
This study screened 170 patients and 62 patients were finally enrolled; patients who were supplied nutrition without the protocol were classified as the control group (n=40), while those who were supplied according to the protocol were classified as the test group (n=22).
Results
In the test group, EN started significantly earlier (3.7±0.4 days vs. 2.4±0.5 days, P=0.010). EN calorie (4.0±1.0 kcal/kg vs. 6.7±0.9 kcal/kg, P=0.006) and protein (0.17±0.04 g/kg vs. 0.32±0.04 g/kg, P=0.002) supplied were significantly higher in the test group. Although EN was supplied through continuous feeding in the test group, there was no difference in complications such as feeding hold due to excessive gastric residual volume or vomit, and hyper- or hypo-glycemia between the two groups. Hospital mortality was significantly lower in the group that started EN within 1.5 days (42.9% vs. 11.8%, P=0.018). The proportion of patients who started EN within 1.5 days was higher in the test group (40.9% vs. 17.5%, P=0.044).
Conclusions
The NICE-NST may improve EN supply and mortality of critically ill patients without increasing complications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nutritional support for patients with abdominal surgical pathology: the view of a surgeon and an anesthesiologist — opponents or allies?
    Natalya P. Shen, Svetlana Yu. Mukhacheva
    Clinical nutrition and metabolism.2023; 3(4): 181.     CrossRef
  • Provision of Enteral Nutrition in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study
    Chan-Hee Park, Hak-Jae Lee, Suk-Kyung Hong, Yang-Hee Jun, Jeong-Woo Lee, Nak-Jun Choi, Kyu-Hyouck Kyoung
    Annals of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.2022; 14(2): 66.     CrossRef
Review Article
Pulmonary
Critical Care after Lung Transplantation
Song Yee Kim, Su Jin Jeong, Jin Gu Lee, Moo Suk Park, Hyo Chae Paik, Sungwon Na, Jeongmin Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(4):206-215.   Published online November 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00360
  • 16,746 View
  • 649 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Since the first successful lung transplantation in 1983, there have been many advances in the field. Nevertheless, the latest data from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation revealed that the risk of death from transplantation is 9%. Various aspects of postoperative management, including mechanical ventilation, could affect intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and immediate postoperative morbidity and mortality. Complications such as reperfusion injury, graft rejection, infection, and dehiscence of anastomosis increase fatal adverse side effects immediately after surgery. In this article, we review the possible immediate complications after lung transplantation and summarize current knowledge on prevention and treatment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Aspergillus Galactomannan Titer as a Diagnostic Marker of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Lung Transplant Recipients: A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Study
    Eun-Young Kim, Seung-Hyun Yong, Min-Dong Sung, A-La Woo, Young-Mok Park, Ha-Eun Kim, Su-Jin Jung, Song-Yee Kim, Jin-Gu Lee, Young-Sam Kim, Hyo-Chae Paik, Moo-Suk Park
    Journal of Fungi.2023; 9(5): 527.     CrossRef
  • Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection after lung transplantation: A single-center experience in South Korea
    Youngmok Park, Nam Eun Kim, Se Hyun Kwak, Moo Suk Park, Su Jin Jeong, Jin Gu Lee, Hyo Chae Paik, Song Yee Kim, Young Ae Kang
    Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.2022; 55(1): 123.     CrossRef
  • Medical Complications of Lung Transplantation
    Moo Suk Park
    Journal of Chest Surgery.2022; 55(4): 338.     CrossRef
  • Roles of electrical impedance tomography in lung transplantation
    Hui Jiang, Yijiao Han, Xia Zheng, Qiang Fang
    Frontiers in Physiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Perioperative anidulafungin combined with triazole prophylaxis for the prevention of early invasive candidiasis in lung transplant recipients
    Emily Sartain, Kelly Schoeppler, Barrett Crowther, Joshua B. Smith, Maheen Z. Abidi, Todd J. Grazia, Mark Steele, Terri Gleason, Krista Porter, Alice Gray
    Transplant Infectious Disease.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Prediction and Prognosis of Fungal Infection in Lung Transplant Recipients—A Retrospective Cohort Study in South Korea
    Yae-Jee Baek, Yun-Suk Cho, Moo-Hyun Kim, Jong-Hoon Hyun, Yu-Jin Sohn, Song-Yee Kim, Su-Jin Jeong, Moo-Suk Park, Jin-Gu Lee, Hyo-Chae Paik
    Journal of Fungi.2021; 7(8): 639.     CrossRef
  • Panel-Reactive and Donor-Specific Antibodies before Lung Transplantation can Affect Outcomes in Korean Patients Receiving Lung Transplantation
    Sung Woo Moon, Moo Suk Park, Jin Gu Lee, Hyo Chae Paik, Young Tae Kim, Hyun Joo Lee, Samina Park, Sun Mi Choi, Do Hyung Kim, Woo Hyun Cho, Hye Ju Yeo, Seung-il Park, Se Hoon Choi, Sang-Bum Hong, Tae Sun Shim, Kyung-Wook Jo, Kyeongman Jeon, Byeong-Ho Jeong
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2020; 61(7): 606.     CrossRef
  • A proof-of principal study using phase-contrast imaging for the detection of large airway pathologies after lung transplantation
    Stephan Umkehrer, Carmela Morrone, Julien Dinkel, Laura Aigner, Maximilian F. Reiser, Julia Herzen, Ali Ö. Yildirim, Franz Pfeiffer, Katharina Hellbach
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Surgery
Clinical Outcome and Prognosis of Patients Admitted to the Surgical ICU after Abdomen Surgery
Yun Su Sim, Jin Hwa Lee, Jung Hyun Chang, Yon Ju Ryu
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2015;30(1):1-7.   Published online February 28, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2015.30.1.1
  • 7,378 View
  • 152 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Postoperative admission to the surgical intensive care unit (S-ICU) is commonly planned to prevent and treat complications, unnecessary admission to the S-ICU increases medical costs and length of hospital stay. This study aimed evaluated outcome and the predictive factors for mortality in patients admitted to the S-ICU after abdominal surgery. Methods: The 168 patients admitted to the S-ICU immediately after abdominal surgery were reviewed retrospectively from January to December 2011. Results: The mortality rate of patients admitted to the S-ICU after abdominal surgery was 8.9% (15 of 168). Two preoperative factors (body mass index [BMI] < 18.5 kg/m2 [p < 0.001] and serum albumin < 3.0 g/dL [p = 0.018]), two operative factors (the need for transfusion [p = 0.008] or vasopressors [p = 0.013] during surgery), and three postoperative variables (mechanical ventilation immediately following surgery [p < 0.001], sequential organ failure assessment [p = 0.001] and SAPS II [p = 0.001] score) were associated with mortality in univariate analysis. After adjusting for age, gender, and SAPS II by a Cox regression, which revealed that BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR] 9.690, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.990-25.258) and the use of mechanical ventilation on admission to S-ICU (p < 0.001, HR 34.671, 95% CI 6.440-186.649) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions: In patients in S-ICU after abdominal surgery, low BMI and postsurgical mechanical ventilation should be considered important predictors of mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Effect of Organ System Surgery on Intensive Care Unit Mortality in a Cohort of Critically Ill Surgical Patients
    Anastasiya Shchatsko, Laura N. Purcell, Christopher J. Tignanelli, Anthony Charles
    The American Surgeon.2021; 87(8): 1230.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Vascular Surgery
Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization
Kyung Woo Kim, Jun Hyun Kim, Se Hyeok Park, Ji Yeon Kim, Sang Il Lee, Kyung Tae Kim, Jang Su Park, Jung Won Kim, Won Joo Choe
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2014;29(2):137-140.   Published online May 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2014.29.2.137
  • 4,951 View
  • 84 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.
Cardiology
Isolated Chylopericardium after Mitral Valve Replacement: the First Description of Adult Heart Disease in Korea
Su Wan Kim, Seogjae Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2014;29(2):123-125.   Published online May 31, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2014.29.2.123
  • 3,957 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Isolated chylopericardium as a complication of cardiac surgery is very rare. Two cases of chylopericardium have been previously reported in Korea; both patients suffered from chylopericardium after a corrective cardiac surgery for a congenital heart disease such as atrial or ventricular septal defect. We report a case of chylopericardium in a 55-year-old mitral valve replacement patient. The reason for chylopericardium was unclear, but it might have been related with the damaged lymph nodes and blunt dissection of the thymus. While most chylopericardium cases require surgical intervention, we managed this chylopericardium case with a low-fat diet for 3 days.
Occurrence of Acquired Tracheoesophageal Fistula Due to Excess Endotracheal Tube Cuff Volumes: A Case Report
Myeong Soo Kim, Eun Jeong Koh, Ha Young Choi
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(2):146-151.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.2.146
  • 2,893 View
  • 458 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Endotracheal tube cuff volume and pressure require constant monitoring to prevent tracheal injury. Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula is common from complications of mechanical ventilation as a result of pressured necrosis of the tracheoesophageal wall by endotracheal tube cuff. It still represents a life-threatening condition, especially when the diagnosis is being delayed. We present our modest experience through an acquired TEF patient who had an excessively enlarged cuff diameter on chest radiogram in order to consider the potential of using radiological-measured cuff diameter as a simple technique for predicting tracheal damages. Although the cuff pressure was monitored with a manometer by the medical team, it was possible that the tube cuff was excessively enlarged. Proper procedures for preventing the tracheal damage by cuffs include the following: monitoring of endotracheal cuff pressure and volume, observation of cuff size on the chest radiogram, and being mindful and attentive for possibilities of misjudgements by manometer or medical teams.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Morphometric Study of Main Bronchus in Korean Cadaver
    Ik Sung Kim, Chang Ho Song
    Korean Journal of Physical Anthropology.2017; 30(1): 7.     CrossRef
  • Total Unilateral Obstruction by Sputum Immediately after Tracheal Bougienage
    Kyunam Kim, Jonghun Jun, Miae Jeong, Songlark Choi, Youngsun Lee
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2014; 29(1): 32.     CrossRef
A Case of Acute Lung Injury after Transfusion during Cesarean Section: A Case Report
Hee Jong Lee, Mi Ae Jeong, Ji Seon Jeong, Min Kyu Han, Jong Hun Jun
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(3):184-187.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.3.184
  • 2,909 View
  • 52 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication following the transfusion of blood products. TRALI is under-diagnosed and under-reported because of a lack of awareness. TRALI occurs within 6 hours of transfusion in the majority of cases and its presentation is similar to other forms of acute lung injury. We report on the case of a 34-year-old pregnant woman who suffered from TRALI after transfusion during Cesarean section.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Transfusion-related acute lung injury in a parturient diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome - A case report -
    Tae-Yun Sung, Young Seok Jee, Seok-jin Lee, Hwang Ju You, Ki Soon Jeong, Po-Soon Kang
    Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.2019; 14(1): 35.     CrossRef
  • A Case Report of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury Induced in the Patient with HLA Antibody after Fresh Frozen Plasma Transfusion
    Ki Sul Chang, Dae Won Jun, Youngil Kim, Hyunwoo Oh, Min Koo Kang, Junghoon Lee, Intae Moon
    The Korean Journal of Blood Transfusion.2015; 26(3): 309.     CrossRef
  • Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury after Stored Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion - A Case Report -
    Ho-Hyun Kim, Dong-Kyu Lee, Chan-Yong Park, Jae-Kyoon Ju, Jung-Chul Kim
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2013; 28(2): 141.     CrossRef
  • A case of transfusion-related acute lung injury induced by anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies in acute leukemia
    Sun Mi Jin, Moon Ju Jang, Ji Young Huh, Myoung Hee Park, Eun Young Song, Doyeun Oh
    The Korean Journal of Hematology.2012; 47(4): 302.     CrossRef
Original Article
Relationship between Patient Height and Depth of Central Venous Catheter
Dong Jun Lee, Ui Jae Im, Ki Tae Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(3):145-150.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.3.145
  • 2,456 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Location of the tip of a central venous catheter (CVC) within the pericardium has been associated with potentially lethal cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to show the relationship between the height of patients and the depth of CVC.
METHODS
We enrolled 262 adult patients into this study. All patients were divided to three groups according to the height; Group S, M and L. Central venous catheterization was performed through the right subclavian vein and the CVC was fixed at the depth of 15 cm from the skin. The distance between the CVC tips and the carina was measured by chest X-ray and was analyzed.
RESULTS
The mean (SD) tip position placed via the right subclavian vein was 0.04 (1.6) cm above the carina; Group S, 0.01 (1.8) above the carina, Group M, 0.16 (1.4) above the carina, and Group L, 0.16 (1.8) below the carina. CVC locations could be predicted with a margin of error between 3.1 cm below the carina and 3.2 cm above the carina in 95% of patients. There was no significance difference among the three groups.
CONCLUSIONS
The relationship between the height of patient and the depth of CVC was low. Because many of the CVC tips were positioned below the carina regardless the height of patients on routine 15 cm-length method, it is recommended not to use the routine 15 cm method with right subclavian CVC placement as far as possible.
Case Reports
Delayed Pleural Effusion after Right Subclavian Vein Catheterization: A Case Report
Ji Ung Kim, Ji Hyun Cheon, Il Soo Kim, Sun Kwang Kim, Sung Hyun Ko, Sea Won Lee, Sang Hee Kim, Su Hong Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(3):190-193.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.3.190
  • 2,781 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Central venous catheterization is commonly used for supplying large amounts of fluids, total parenteral nutrition and for monitoring central venous pressure. Numerous complications exist with the technique, including pneumothorax, arterial puncture with vessel injury, catheter embolus, mediastinal hematoma, hydrothorax, and the thrombus of the vein. We reported an uncommon case of pleural effusion, due to catheter tip migration and penetration, which occurred 4 days after central venous catheterization.
A Sheared Catheter Fragment in the Wrist after Arterial Cannulation Attempt: A Case Report
Sue Young Lee, Hyo Seok Na, Mi Hyun Kim, Chong Soo Kim, Young Tae Jeon, Jung Won Hwang, Sang Hwan Do
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(2):118-121.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.2.118
  • 2,476 View
  • 30 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Continuous measurement of arterial pressure is frequently required in the perioperative management of critically ill patients and major surgeries. The complications following arterial cannulation include hematoma, thrombosis, ischemia, infection, aneurysm formation at the site of catheter insertion, and so on. The authors report a case of the sheared catheter during the arterial cannulation and the subsequent surgical removal of its remnant.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Fracture of an Intravenous Cannula in the Hand: A Case Report
    Seungho Woo, Sangun Nah, Giwoon Kim, Sangsoo Han
    Journal of Emergency Nursing.2023; 49(2): 156.     CrossRef
  • Iatrogenic catheter sheath shearing during radial artery cannulation
    Il-Seok Kim, Ho Kyun Shin, Dae Yu Kim
    Korean Journal of Anesthesiology.2013; 65(6 Suppl): S12.     CrossRef
  • A retained catheter fragment in radial artery caused by accidental catheter transection during arterial catheter removal
    Seung-Ki Moon, Jae-Chul Gong, Jun-Hyun Kim, Kyu Chang Lee, Hye Young Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Myeong Jong Lee
    Journal of Anesthesia.2012; 26(4): 625.     CrossRef
Atelectasis of Dependent Lungs during Fistula Closure in a Patient with Tracheopleural Fistula: A Case Report
Hong Soo Jung, Yeon Soo Jeon, Jin Woo Choi, Jin Deok Joo, Yong Shin Kim, Dae Woo Kim, Jang Hyeok In, Joo Seon Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2009;24(2):106-110.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2009.24.2.106
  • 2,588 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Atelectasis is a fairly common complication in patients undergoing general anesthesia. However, atelectasis caused secretion plugs in patients with tracheopleural fistula is less common than other airway fistulas such as trachea and bronchus. Anesthesiologists should make every effort for thorough preoperative preparation to prevent atelectasis and using appropriate and aggressive treatment, including tracheal or bronchial clearing and end expiratory positive pressure. We report a case of an intraoperative occurrence of atelectasis of the lower lobe of a dependent lung in a patient with a tracheopleural fistula during single lung ventilation for primary closure.
Original Article
Subclavian Vein Catheterization by Using 24-Gauge Peripheral Angiocatheter in Pediatric Cadiovascular Surgical Patients
Jin Mo Kim, Young Ho Jang, Jae Hong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2005;20(2):159-164.
  • 1,787 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Central venous catheterization (CVP) often leads to unacceptable complications, especially in pediatrics. To reduce these complications, we modified the venipucture by using 24-gauge peripheral angiocatheter (24-AG) in pediatric patients. METHODS: A 24-AG attached to a 3 cc syringe instead of a thin-wall steel needle in the commercial CVP kit was inserted and advanced in the direction of the inmominate vein with 45degrees angle. When blood was observed in the syrige, the 24-AG was more advanced into the subclavian vein and the 24-AG stylet was removed. A J-guide wire was inserted through lumen of the angiocather. The following procedure was the same as the Sheldinger technique. RESULTS: 202 pediatric patients received subclavian venipuncture by the method mentioned above. The overall success rate was 96.5%. The rate of success for the first attempt was 85.6% and the average number of venipuncture was 1.3+/-0.1. The overall complications was 6.4%, including hematoma formation (1.5%), pneumothorax (1.5%), bleeding at the puncture site (1.0%), mild hemothorax (0.5%) and pleural puncture without pneumothorax (2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: The subclavian venepuncture by using 24-gauge peripheral angiocatheter was reliable and useful technique in pediatric patients. The overall complications by this method was reduced compared to other reports.
Case Reports
Retropharyngeal Dissection during Nasotracheal Intubation: A Case Report
Hyun Ju Jung, Sie Hyun You, Jong Bun Kim, Young Moon Han, Kuhn Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(2):84-88.
  • 1,858 View
  • 64 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Nasotracheal intubation is commonly performed for oropharyngeal or facial surgery. Although retropharyngeal dissection is a rare complication of nasotracheal intubation, serious sequelae may result. We report a case of a traumatic retropharyngeal dissection during nasotracheal intubation without untoward sequelae.
Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhage after Extubation in a Hypertensive Patient: A case report
Jun Hak Lee, Hyo Sin Lim, Kyung Hee Nam, Su Jong Lee, Ki Nam Lee, Jun Il Moon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1999;14(2):176-180.
  • 1,641 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Postoperative hypertension occurs often in hypertensive patients due to pain, hypercapnia, hypoxemia, or excessive intravascular fluid volume. In addition, tracheal extubation exacerbates hypertension and tachycardia, which leads to left ventricular failure, myocardial infarction, or cerebral hemorrhage. We experienced a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage after extubation in the postanesthetic care unit. The patient was 50-year old female who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy. Three months ago, she suffered a hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage with conservative treatment. Anesthesia induction and intraoperative course were relatively uneventful. In the postanesthetic care unit, she had voluntary movement of all limbs to command and fully awake consciousness. Immediately after tracheal extubation, the blood pressure was increased sharply to 200/110 mmHg. After then, the patient's mental status was deteriorated and the motor weakness of left extremities was developed. Brain CT showed a hypertensive hemorrhage at the right putamen and emergency stereotaxic aspiration was performed. After rehabilitative treatment, the patient was discharged with alert mental status and moderate improvement of motor weakness.
Original Article
Incidence of Pulmonary Aspiration in Patients with Tracheostomy
Keon Sik Kim, Dong Soo Kim, Wha Ja Kang, Young Kyu Choi, Ok Young Shin, Doo Ik Lee, Moo Il Kwon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1999;14(2):161-166.
  • 1,911 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Patients with tracheostomy tubes have altered glottic closure in deglutition that may result in aspiration and may cause dangerous pulmonary complication including bronchopneumonia and atelectasis. The incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with tracheosomy may be high but difficult to determine because investigators often apply different criteria. The present study was prepared to document the incidence of aspiration in patients with tracheostomy using a simple dye-marker test.
METHODS
Thirty six surgical and medical patients (14 male and 22 female) in ICU with tracheostomy tube (high volume, low pressure cuffed tube) were included in this study. Mental status (presence of response to verbal command), the presence of nasogastric tube and the presence of ventilatory support were recorded in each patients to evaluate the effect of these factors on the incidence of aspiration. 1% solution of methylene blue dye was applied on the both side of posterior tongue and then any evidence of the blue dye-marker obtained microscopically on secretion through the tracheostomy tube at every 2 hours during 72 hours was considered the positive evidence of aspiration.
RESULTS
Aspiration was detected by a positive methylene blue dye test in 11 of the 36 patients (30.5%) and average length of time before blue dye was obtained on tracheal secretion was 8.2 7.3 hours.The presence of response to verbal command, nasogastric tube and ventilatory support had no apparent effect on the incidence of aspiration.
CONCLUSIONS
This observation suggests that a simple test using dye-maker is helpful to detect aspiration in patients with tracheostomy. Tracheostomy should be done under discreet decision because the high incidence of aspiration in trcheostomized patients.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care