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Pediatrics
Implementation and effectiveness of a delirium care protocol in Thai critically ill children
Chanapai Chaiyakulsil, Thananya Thadahirunchot
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):488-497.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00045
  • 1,026 View
  • 43 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium in critically ill children can result in long-term morbidity. Our main objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of a new protocol on the reduction, prevalence, and duration of delirium and to identify associated risk factors.
Methods
The effectiveness of the protocol was evaluated by a chart review in all critically ill children aged 1 month to 15 years during the study period. A Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium score ≥9 was considered positive for delirium. Data on delirium prevalence and duration from the pre-implementation and post-implementation phases were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors of delirium.
Results
A total of 120 children was analyzed (58 children in the pre-implementation group and 62 children in the post-implementation group). Fifty children (41.7%) screened positive for delirium. Age less than 2 years, delayed development, use of mechanical ventilation, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay >7 days were significantly associated with delirium. The proportion of children screened positive was not significantly different after the implementation (before, 39.7% vs. after, 43.5%; P=0.713). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery.
Conclusions
The newly implemented protocol was able to reduce the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery. More studies should be conducted to reduce delirium to prevent long-term morbidity after PICU discharge.
Pediatric
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetic ketoacidosis management in the pediatric intensive care unit
Fevzi Kahveci, Buse Önen Ocak, Emrah Gün, Anar Gurbanov, Hacer Uçmak, Ayşen Durak Aslan, Ayşegül Ceran, Hasan Özen, Burak Balaban, Edin Botan, Zeynep Şıklar, Merih Berberoğlu, Tanıl Kendirli
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(3):371-379.   Published online August 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00038
  • 1,811 View
  • 39 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common endocrine emergency in pediatric patients. Early presentation to health facilities, diagnosis, and good management in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are crucial for better outcomes in children with DKA.
Methods
This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted between February 2015 and January 2022. Patients with DKA were divided into two groups according to pandemic status and diabetes diagnosis.
Results
The study enrolled 59 patients, and their mean age was 11±5 years. Forty (68%) had newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and 61% received follow-up in the pre-pandemic period. Blood glucose, blood ketone, potassium, phosphorus, and creatinine levels were significantly higher in the new-onset T1DM group compared with the previously diagnosed group (P=0.01, P=0.02, P<0.001, P=0.01, and P=0.08, respectively). In patients with newly diagnosed T1DM, length of PICU stays were longer than in those with previously diagnosed T1DM (28.5±8.9 vs. 17.3±6.7 hours, P<0.001). The pandemic group was compared with pre-pandemic group, there was a statistically significant difference in laboratory parameters of pH, HCO3, and lactate and also Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score. All patients survived, and there were no neurologic sequelae.
Conclusions
Patients admitted during the pandemic period were admitted with more severe DKA and had higher PRISM III scores. During the pandemic period, there was an increase in the incidence of DKA in the participating center compared to that before the pandemic.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Covid 19 and diabetes in children: advances and strategies
    Zhaoyuan Wu, Jinling Wang, Rahim Ullah, Minghao Chen, Ke Huang, Guanping Dong, Junfen Fu
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pediatrics
Characteristics and timing of mortality in children dying in pediatric intensive care: a 5-year experience
Edin Botan, Emrah Gün, Emine Kübra Şden, Cansu Yöndem, Anar Gurbanov, Burak Balaban, Fevzi Kahveci, Hasan Özen, Hacer Uçmak, Ali Genco Gençay, Tanil Kendirli
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):644-653.   Published online November 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00395
  • 2,398 View
  • 107 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), where children with critical illnesses are treated, require considerable manpower and technological infrastructure in order to keep children alive and free from sequelae. Methods: In this retrospective comparative cohort study, hospital records of patients aged 1 month to 18 years who died in the study PICU between January 2015 and December 2019 were reviewed. Results: A total of 2,781 critically ill children were admitted to the PICU. The mean±standard deviation age of 254 nonsurvivors was 64.34±69.48 months. The mean PICU length of stay was 17 days (range, 1–205 days), with 40 children dying early (<1 day of PICU admission). The majority of nonsurvivors (83.9%) had comorbid illnesses. Children with early mortality were more likely to have neurological findings (62.5%), hypotension (82.5%), oliguria (47.5%), acidosis (92.5%), coagulopathy (30.0%), and cardiac arrest (45.0%) and less likely to have terminal illnesses (52.5%) and chronic illnesses (75.6%). Children who died early had a higher mean age (81.8 months) and Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score (37). In children who died early, the first three signs during ICU admission were hypoglycemia in 68.5%, neurological symptoms in 43.5%, and acidosis in 78.3%. Sixty-seven patients needed continuous renal replacement therapy, 51 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and 10 underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: We found that rates of neurological findings, hypotension, oliguria, acidosis, coagulation disorder, and cardiac arrest and PRISM III scores were higher in children who died early compared to those who died later.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Descriptive and Clinical Characteristics of Nonsurvivors in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Turkey: 6 Years of Experience
    Zeynep Karakaya, Merve Boyraz, Seyma Koksal Atis, Servet Yuce, Muhterem Duyu
    Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between mortality and critical events within 48 hours of transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit
    Huan Liang, Kyle A. Carey, Priti Jani, Emily R. Gilbert, Majid Afshar, L. Nelson Sanchez-Pinto, Matthew M. Churpek, Anoop Mayampurath
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pediatrics
Incidence and associated factors of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome using the VSCAREMD model
Paweethida Tippayawong, Chanapai Chaiyakulsil
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):627-635.   Published online October 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00234
  • 2,158 View
  • 123 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The VSCAREMD model is used for evaluating vaccination, sleep, and parental care burden, which includes daily activity and social interaction, rehabilitation requirements, hearing, mood, and development. It has been proposed to detect post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) in children. This study aimed to outline the incidence of PICS in children using the VSCAREMD model and to describe the associated factors. Methods: All children ages 1 month to 15 years and admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 48 hours were evaluated using the VSCAREMD model within 1 week of intensive care discharge. Abnormal findings were assorted into four domains: physical, cognitive, mental, and social. Descriptive statistics were performed using chi-square, univariate, and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 78 of 95 children (82.1%) had at least one abnormal domain. Physical, cognitive, mental, and social morbidity were found in 64.2%, 26.3%, 13.7%, and 38.9% of the children, respectively. Prolonged intensive care unit stay greater than 7 days was associated with dysfunction in physical (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–11.00), cognitive (aOR, 10.11; 95% CI, 3.01–33.89), and social domains (aOR, 5.01; 95% CI, 2.01–12.73). Underlying medical conditions were associated with cognitive (aOR, 13.63; 95% CI, 2.64– 70.26) and social morbidity (aOR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.06–7.47). Conclusions: The incidence of PICS using the VSCAREMD model was substantially high and associated with prolonged intensive care. This model could help evaluate PICS in children.
Low Blood Selenium Concentrations in Critically Ill Children with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Respiratory Dysfunction
Young A Kim, Eun Ju Ha, Won Kyoung Jhang, Seong Jong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(2):86-92.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.2.86
  • 2,512 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Selenium is an essential trace-element with antioxidant and immunological function. We studied the relationship between blood selenium concentrations, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and organ dysfunctions in critically ill children.
METHODS
This was a retrospective, observational study of the blood selenium concentrations of critically ill children at the time of a pediatric intensive care unit admission.
RESULTS
A total of 62 patients with a median age of 18 (5-180) months were included in this study. The mean of blood selenium concentration (microg/dl) was 8.49 +/- 2.42. The platelet count (r = -0.378) and PaCO2 (r = -0.403) showed negative correlations with blood selenium concentration, while PaO2/FiO2 (r = 0.359) and PaO2 (r = 0.355) showed positive correlations (p < 0.05, for all variables). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patients with SIRS than in those patients without SIRS (8.08 +/- 2.42 vs. 9.45 +/- 2.02, p = 0.011). Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock had showed significantly lower blood selenium concentrations than those without SIRS (7.03 +/- 2.73 vs. 9.45 +/- 2.02, p = 0.042). Patients with PaO2/FiO2 < or = 300 had lower blood selenium concentrations than those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 (7.90 +/- 2.43 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patient with PaO2/FiO2 < or = 200 than in those with PaO2/FiO2 > 300 (7.64 +/- 2.76 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or respiratory dysfunction showed significantly low blood selenium concentrations.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care