Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

ACC : Acute and Critical Care



Page Path
HOME > Search
2 "artificial respiration"
Article category
Publication year
Funded articles
Original Articles
Cinematic virtual reality for anxiety management in mechanically ventilated patients: a feasibility and pilot study
Alexander C. Haley, David A. Wacker
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(2):230-236.   Published online February 4, 2022
  • 2,509 View
  • 169 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mechanically ventilated patients experience anxiety for many reasons. Pharmacological treatments such as benzodiazepines are commonly employed to manage anxiety; however, these therapies often cause undesired side effects. Additional therapies for anxiety management are needed. We sought to determine whether cell phone-based virtual reality therapy could feasibly be used for anxiety management in mechanically ventilated patients.
Mechanically ventilated subjects underwent at least one session of virtual reality therapy in which they were shown a cinematic video of an outdoor green space or blue space with 360° visual range of motion. Goal session duration was 5 minutes. The primary outcome was incidence of predefined patient safety events, including self-extubation and accidental removal of tubes or lines.
Ten subjects underwent a total of 18 virtual reality sessions. Fifteen sessions lasted the planned 5 minutes, one session was extended at participant request, and two sessions were terminated early at participant request. There were no occurrences of the predefined safety events, and no occurrences of cybersickness. Use of a visual analog scale to measure anxiety level was feasible for this pilot study, demonstrating feasibility of this scale for future, larger scale studies.
Virtual reality therapy shows potential as a means of managing anxiety in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, and further rigorous exploration with this protocol is feasible.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Virtual Reality Therapy for People With Epilepsy and Related Anxiety: Protocol for a 3-Phase Pilot Clinical Trial
    Hannah Gabrielle Gray, Danielle Tchao, Samantha Lewis-Fung, Susanna Pardini, Laurence R Harris, Lora Appel
    JMIR Research Protocols.2023; 12: e41523.     CrossRef
Analysis of the Description of Ventilator Parameters in Recent Papers Relating Artificial Ventilation Using Anesthesia Machine
Jiyeon Sim, Hee Yeon Park, Wonsik Ahn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2007;22(1):7-14.
  • 1,413 View
  • 38 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Procedures in medical papers should be described in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to reproduce the results. The apparatus including anesthesia machine should be given, too. Anesthesia machine has dramatically improved as bioengineering has developed. There are several ventilator settings in modern anesthesia machines. However, it seems that only a few ventilator settings are described even though modern ventilators are used in research. The purpose of this study is to investigate that how many ventilator parameters were described in the papers of the Korean Journal of Anesthesiology from 2001 to 2006. METHODS: All of papers with human general anesthesia were reviewed except case reports, and papers regarding only induction or intubation procedures. Recruited articles were grouped into papers with strongly related to respiratory parameters (STP), and into ones with slightly related to them based on the research topics. The description of following categories was counted in each paper; the type of anesthesia machine, tidal volume, respiratory rate, inspiratory:expiratory ratio, mode of ventilation, pressure set in pressure targeted ventilation, positive end expiratory pressure, inspiratory pause, and inspiratory rising rate. RESULTS: The description rate of each parameters in STP were 36% in the type of anesthesia machine, 66% in tidal volume, 54% in respiratory rate, and 24% in inspiratory:expiratory ratio. The other settings were seldomly mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: Description on the ventilator parameters was sometimes missed. We should describe adequate ventilator settings to reproduce the results because the modern anesthesia machine has additional ventilator options.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care