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Volume 37 (1); February 2022
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Guideline
Pharmacology
2021 KSCCM clinical practice guidelines for pain, agitation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disturbance in the intensive care unit
Yijun Seo, Hak-Jae Lee, Eun Jin Ha, Tae Sun Ha
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):1-25.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00094
  • 7,754 View
  • 822 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
We revised and expanded the “2010 Guideline for the Use of Sedatives and Analgesics in the Adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU).” We revised the 2010 Guideline based mainly on the 2018 “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility, and Sleep Disruption (PADIS) in Adult Patients in the ICU,” which was an updated 2013 pain, agitation, and delirium guideline with the inclusion of two additional topics (rehabilitation/mobility and sleep). Since it was not possible to hold face-to-face meetings of panels due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all discussions took place via virtual conference platforms and e-mail with the participation of all panelists. All authors drafted the recommendations, and all panelists discussed and revised the recommendations several times. The quality of evidence for each recommendation was classified as high (level A), moderate (level B), or low/very low (level C), and all panelists voted on the quality level of each recommendation. The participating panelists had no conflicts of interest on related topics. The development of this guideline was independent of any industry funding. The Pain, Agitation/Sedation, Delirium, Immobility (rehabilitation/mobilization), and Sleep Disturbance panels issued 42 recommendations (level A, 6; level B, 18; and level C, 18). The 2021 clinical practice guideline provides up-to-date information on how to prevent and manage pain, agitation/sedation, delirium, immobility, and sleep disturbance in adult ICU patients. We believe that these guidelines can provide an integrated method for clinicians to manage PADIS in adult ICU patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • End‐of‐life care in the intensive care unit
    M. Tanaka Gutiez, N. Efstathiou, R. Innes, V. Metaxa
    Anaesthesia.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • ICU-Induced Disability Persists With or Without COVID-19—This Is a Call for F to A Bundle Action*
    Heidi Engel
    Critical Care Medicine.2022; 50(11): 1665.     CrossRef
  • Actigraphy-Based Assessment of Sleep Parameters in Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Respiratory Support Therapy
    Jiyeon Kang, Yongbin Kwon
    Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing.2022; 15(3): 115.     CrossRef
Review Articles
Pulmonary
Awakening in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation
Su Hwan Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):26-34.   Published online February 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00031
  • 2,286 View
  • 177 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although the rate of lung transplantation (LTx), the last treatment option for end-stage lung disease, is increasing, some patients waiting for LTx need a bridging strategy for LTx due to the limited number of available donor lungs. For a long time, mechanical ventilation has been employed as a bridge to LTx because the outcome of using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridging strategy has been poor. However, the outcome after mechanical ventilation as a bridge to LTx was poor compared with that in patients without bridges. With advances in technology and the accumulation of experience, the outcome of ECMO as a bridge to LTx has improved, and the rate of ECMO use as a bridging strategy has increased over time. However, whether the use of ECMO as a bridge to LTx can achieve survival rates similar to those of non-bridged LTx patients remains controversial. In 2010, one center introduced awake ECMO strategy for LTx bridging, and its use as a bridge to LTx has been showing favorable outcomes to date. Awake ECMO has several advantages, such as maintenance of physical activity, spontaneous breathing, avoidance of endotracheal intubation, and reduced use of sedatives and analgesics, but it may cause serious problems. Nonetheless, several studies have shown that awake ECMO performed by a multidisciplinary team is safe. In cases where ECMO or mechanical ventilation is required due to unavoidable exacerbation in patients awaiting LTx, the application of awake ECMO performed by an appropriately trained ECMO multi-disciplinary team can be useful.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dangers in using beta-blockers in patients with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
    Diego Rodríguez Álvarez, Elena Pérez-Costa, Juan José Menéndez Suso
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(4): 683.     CrossRef
Neurosurgery
Brain-lung interaction: a vicious cycle in traumatic brain injury
Ariana Alejandra Chacón-Aponte, Érika Andrea Durán-Vargas, Jaime Adolfo Arévalo-Carrillo, Iván David Lozada-Martínez, Maria Paz Bolaño-Romero, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Pedro Grille, Tariq Janjua
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):35-44.   Published online February 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01193
  • 6,024 View
  • 524 Download
  • 4 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The brain-lung interaction can seriously affect patients with traumatic brain injury, triggering a vicious cycle that worsens patient prognosis. Although the mechanisms of the interaction are not fully elucidated, several hypotheses, notably the “blast injury” theory or “double hit” model, have been proposed and constitute the basis of its development and progression. The brain and lungs strongly interact via complex pathways from the brain to the lungs but also from the lungs to the brain. The main pulmonary disorders that occur after brain injuries are neurogenic pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the principal brain disorders after lung injuries include brain hypoxia and intracranial hypertension. All of these conditions are key considerations for management therapies after traumatic brain injury and need exceptional case-by-case monitoring to avoid neurological or pulmonary complications. This review aims to describe the history, pathophysiology, risk factors, characteristics, and complications of brain-lung and lung-brain interactions and the impact of different old and recent modalities of treatment in the context of traumatic brain injury.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The role of cardiac dysfunction and post-traumatic pulmonary embolism in brain-lung interactions following traumatic brain injury
    Mabrouk Bahloul, Karama Bouchaala, Najeh Baccouche, Kamilia Chtara, Hedi Chelly, Mounir Bouaziz
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(2): 266.     CrossRef
  • Allocation of Donor Lungs in Korea
    Hye Ju Yeo
    Journal of Chest Surgery.2022; 55(4): 274.     CrossRef
  • Mapping brain endophenotypes associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis genetic risk
    Ali-Reza Mohammadi-Nejad, Richard J. Allen, Luke M. Kraven, Olivia C. Leavy, R. Gisli Jenkins, Louise V. Wain, Dorothee P. Auer, Stamatios N. Sotiropoulos
    eBioMedicine.2022; 86: 104356.     CrossRef
  • Use of bedside ultrasound in the evaluation of acute dyspnea: a comprehensive review of evidence on diagnostic usefulness
    Ivan David Lozada-Martinez, Isabela Zenilma Daza-Patiño, Gerardo Jesus Farley Reina-González, Sebastián Rojas-Pava, Ailyn Zenith Angulo-Lara, María Paola Carmona-Rodiño, Olga Gissela Sarmiento-Najar, Jhon Mike Romero-Madera, Yesid Alonso Ángel-Hernandez
    Revista Investigación en Salud Universidad de Boyacá.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Basic science and research
A machine learning model for predicting favorable outcome in severe traumatic brain injury patients after 6 months
Mehdi Nourelahi, Fardad Dadboud, Hosseinali Khalili, Amin Niakan, Hossein Parsaei
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):45-52.   Published online January 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00486
  • 2,329 View
  • 189 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), which occurs commonly worldwide, is among the more costly of health and socioeconomic problems. Accurate prediction of favorable outcomes in severe TBI patients could assist with optimizing treatment procedures, predicting clinical outcomes, and result in substantial economic savings. Methods: In this study, we examined the capability of a machine learning-based model in predicting “favorable” or “unfavorable” outcomes after 6 months in severe TBI patients using only parameters measured on admission. Three models were developed using logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machines trained on parameters recorded from 2,381 severe TBI patients admitted to the neuro-intensive care unit of Rajaee (Emtiaz) Hospital (Shiraz, Iran) between 2015 and 2017. Model performance was evaluated using three indices: sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. A ten-fold cross-validation method was used to estimate these indices. Results: Overall, the developed models showed excellent performance with the area under the curve around 0.81, sensitivity and specificity of around 0.78. The top-three factors important in predicting 6-month post-trauma survival status in TBI patients are “Glasgow coma scale motor response,” “pupillary reactivity,” and “age.” Conclusions: Machine learning techniques might be used to predict the 6-month outcome in TBI patients using only the parameters measured on admission when the machine learning is trained using a large data set.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predicting Outcome in Patients with Brain Injury: Differences between Machine Learning versus Conventional Statistics
    Antonio Cerasa, Gennaro Tartarisco, Roberta Bruschetta, Irene Ciancarelli, Giovanni Morone, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Giovanni Pioggia, Paolo Tonin, Marco Iosa
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(9): 2267.     CrossRef
Policy/Pulmonary
Association between the National Health Insurance coverage benefit extension policy and clinical outcomes of ventilated patients: a retrospective study
Wanho Yoo, Saerom Kim, Soohan Kim, Eunsuk Jeong, Kwangha Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):53-60.   Published online February 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01389
  • 1,764 View
  • 131 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to investigate the association between the Korean National Health Insurance coverage benefit extension policy and clinical outcomes of patients who were ventilated owing to various respiratory diseases. Methods: Data from 515 patients (male, 69.7%; mean age, 69.8±12.1 years; in-hospital mortality rate, 28.3%) who were hospitalized in a respiratory intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed over 5 years. Results: Of total enrolled patients, 356 (69.1%) had one benefit items under this policy during their hospital stay. They had significantly higher medical expenditure (total: median, 23,683 vs. 12,742 U.S. dollars [USD], P<0.001), out-of-pocket (median, 5,932 vs. 4,081 USD; P<0.001), and a lower percentage of out-of-pocket medical expenditure relative to total medical expenditure (median, 26.0% vs. 32.2%; P<0.001). Patients without benefit items associated with higher in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.794; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.980–3.941; P<0.001). In analysis of patients with benefit items, patients with three items (“cancer,” “tuberculosis,” and “disability”) had significantly lower out-of-pocket medical expenditure (3,441 vs. 6,517 USD, P<0.001), and a lower percentage of out-of-pocket medical expenditure relative to total medical expenditure (17.2% vs. 27.7%, P<0.001). They were associated with higher in-hospital mortality (HR, 3.904; 95% CI, 2.533–6.039; P<0.001). Conclusions: Our study showed patients with benefit items had more medical resources and associated improved in-hospital survival. Patients with the aforementioned three benefit items had lower out-of-pocket medical expenditure due to the implementation of this policy, but higher in-hospital mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of socioeconomic status, insurance status, and insurance coverage benefits on mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit
    Moo Suk Park
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(1): 118.     CrossRef
Infection
Nosocomial meningitis in intensive care: a 10-year retrospective study and literature review
Sofia R. Valdoleiros, Cristina Torrão, Laura S. Freitas, Diana Mano, Celina Gonçalves, Carla Teixeira
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):61-70.   Published online January 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01151
  • 2,659 View
  • 193 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Nosocomial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires early diagnosis, prompt initiation of therapy, and frequent admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in adult patients diagnosed with nosocomial meningitis who required admission to the ICU between April 2010 and March 2020. Meningitis/ventriculitis and intracranial infection were defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Results: An incidence of 0.75% of nosocomial meningitis was observed among 70 patients. The mean patient age was 59 years and 34% were ≥65 years. Twenty-two percent of patients were in an immunocompromised state. A clear predisposing factor for nosocomial meningitis (traumatic brain injury, basal skull fracture, brain hemorrhage, central nervous system [CNS] invasive procedure or device) was present in 93% of patients. Fever was the most frequent clinical feature. A microbiological agent was identified in 30% of cases, of which 27% were bacteria, with a predominance of Gram-negative over Gram-positive. Complications developed in 47% of cases, 24% of patients were discharged with a Glasgow coma scale <14, and 37% died. There were no clear clinical predictors of complications. Advanced age (≥65 years old) and the presence of complications were associated with higher hospital mortality. Conclusions: Nosocomial meningitis in critical care has a low incidence rate but high mortality and morbidity. In critical care patients with CNS-related risk factors, a high level of suspicion for meningitis is warranted, but diagnosis can be hindered by several confounding factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Bacterial meningitis in adults: a retrospective study among 148 patients in an 8-year period in a university hospital, Finland
    Sakke Niemelä, Laura Lempinen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jarmo Oksi, Jussi Jero
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Etiology and Outcomes of Healthcare-Associated Meningitis and Ventriculitis—A Single Center Cohort Study
    Hana Panic, Branimir Gjurasin, Marija Santini, Marko Kutlesa, Neven Papic
    Infectious Disease Reports.2022; 14(3): 420.     CrossRef
  • Healthcare-associated central nervous system infections
    Mariachiara Ippolito, Antonino Giarratano, Andrea Cortegiani
    Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology.2022; 35(5): 549.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Comparison of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy and noninvasive ventilation in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Glenardi Glenardi, Febie Chriestya, Bambang J Oetoro, Ghea Mangkuliguna, Natalia Natalia
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):71-83.   Published online February 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01326
  • 4,606 View
  • 332 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a major adverse event commonly encountered in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has long been used in the management of ARF, it has several adverse events which may cause patient discomfort and lead to treatment complication. Recently, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has the potential to be an alternative for NIV in adults with ARF, including COVID-19 patients. The objective was to investigate the efficacy of HFNC compared to NIV in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This meta-analysis was reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Literature search was carried out in electronic databases for relevant articles published prior to June 2021. The protocol used in this study has been registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42020225186). Results: Although the success rate of NIV is higher compared to HFNC (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16–0.97; P=0.04), this study showed that the mortality in the NIV group is also significantly higher compared to HFNC group (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.39–0.63; P<0.001). Moreover, this study also demonstrated that there was no significant difference in intubation rates between the two groups (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.86–2.11; P=0.19). Conclusions: Patients treated with HFNC showed better outcomes compared to NIV for ARF due to COVID-19. Therefore, HFNC should be considered prior to NIV in COVID-19–associated ARF. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are still needed to better elucidate the benefit of HFNC in COVID-19 patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison between high-flow nasal cannula and noninvasive ventilation in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Yun Peng, Bing Dai, Hong-wen Zhao, Wei Wang, Jian Kang, Hai-jia Hou, Wei Tan
    Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease.2022; 16: 175346662211136.     CrossRef
Infection
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients in Sfax, Tunisia
Mabrouk Bahloul, Sana Kharrat, Kamilia Chtara, Malek Hafdhi, Olfa Turki, Najeh Baccouche, Rania Ammar, Nozha Kallel, Majdi Hsairi, Olfa Chakroun-Walha, Chokri Ben Hamida, Hedi Chelly, Khaiereddine Ben Mahfoudh, Abelhamid Karoui, Hela Karray, Noureddine Rekik, Mounir Bouaziz
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):84-93.   Published online November 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00129
  • 12,180 View
  • 277 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Africa, like the rest of the world, has been impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, only a few studies covering this subject in Africa have been published. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of critically ill adult COVID-19 patients—all of whom had a confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection— admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital (Sfax, Tunisia). Results: A total of 96 patients were admitted into our ICU for respiratory distress due to COVID-19 infection. Mean age was 62.4±12.8 years and median age was 64 years. Mean arterial oxygen tension (PaO2)/fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio was 105±60 and ≤300 in all cases but one. Oxygen support was required for all patients (100%) and invasive mechanical ventilation for 38 (40%). Prone positioning was applied in 67 patients (70%). Within the study period, 47 of the 96 patients died (49%). Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with poor outcome were the development of acute renal failure (odds ratio [OR], 6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75–25.9), the use of mechanical ventilation (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.54–22.0), and serum cholinesterase (SChE) activity lower than 5,000 UI/L (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.34–19). Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU in Sfax, Tunisia, for acute respiratory failure following COVID-19 infection, the mortality rate was high. The development of acute renal failure, the use of mechanical ventilation, and SChE activity lower than 5,000 UI/L were associated with a poor outcome.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prognostic Value of Serum Cholinesterase Activity in Severe SARS-CoV-2–Infected Patients Requiring Intensive Care Unit Admission
    Mabrouk Bahloul, Sana Kharrat, Saba Makni, Najeh Baccouche, Rania Ammar, Aida Eleuch, Lamia Berrajah, Amel Chtourou, Olfa Turki, Chokri Ben Hamida, Hedi Chelly, Kamilia Chtara, Fatma Ayedi, Mounir Bouaziz
    The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.2022; 107(3): 534.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Diaphragm ultrasound as a better predictor of successful extubation from mechanical ventilation than rapid shallow breathing index
Mohammad Jhahidul Alam, Simanta Roy, Mohammad Azmain Iktidar, Fahmida Khatun Padma, Khairul Islam Nipun, Sreshtha Chowdhury, Ranjan Kumar Nath, Harun-Or Rashid
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):94-100.   Published online January 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01354
  • 2,938 View
  • 267 Download
  • 7 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
In 3%–19% of patients, reintubation is needed 48–72 hours following extubation, which increases intensive care unit (ICU) morbidity, mortality, and expenses. Extubation failure is frequently caused by diaphragm dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to determine the mobility and thickness of the diaphragm. This study looked at the role of diaphragm excursion (DE) and thickening fraction in predicting successful extubation from mechanical ventilation.
Methods
Thirty-one patients were extubated with the advice of an ICU consultant using the ICU weaning regimen and diaphragm ultrasonography was performed. Ultrasound DE and thickening fraction were measured three times: at the commencement of the t-piece experiment, at 10 minutes, and immediately before extubation. All patients' parameters were monitored for 48 hours after extubation. Rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) was also measured at the same time.
Results
Successful extubation was significantly correlated with DE (P=0.01). Receiver curve analysis for DE to predict successful extubation revealed good properties (area under the curve [AUC], 0.83; P<0.001); sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 84.6%, positive predictive value (PPV), 87.5%; negative predictive value (NPV), 73.3% while cut-off value, 11.43 mm. Diaphragm thickening fraction (DTF) also revealed moderate curve properties (AUC, 0.69; P=0.06); sensitivity, 61.1%; specificity, 84.6%; PPV, 87.5%; NPV, 61.1% with cut-off value 22.33% although former one was slightly better. RSBI could not reach good receiver operating characteristic value at cut-off points 100 b/min/L (AUC, 0.58; P=0.47); sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 53.8%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 53.8%).
Conclusions
To decrease the rate of reintubation, DE and DTF are better indicators of successful extubation. DE outperforms DTF.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ultrasonographic Assessment of Diaphragmatic Function and Its Clinical Application in the Management of Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure
    Marina Saad, Stefano Pini, Fiammetta Danzo, Francesca Mandurino Mirizzi, Carmine Arena, Francesco Tursi, Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(3): 411.     CrossRef
  • Role of diaphragm ultrasound in weaning mechanically ventilated patients: A prospective observational study
    Ravi Saravanan, Krishnamurthy Nivedita, Krishnamoorthy Karthik, Rajagopalan Venkatraman
    Indian Journal of Anaesthesia.2022; 66(8): 591.     CrossRef
  • The role of diaphragmatic thickness measurement in weaning prediction and its comparison with rapid shallow breathing index: a single-center experience
    Lokesh Kumar Lalwani, Manjunath B Govindagoudar, Pawan Kumar Singh, Mukesh Sharma, Dhruva Chaudhry
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(3): 347.     CrossRef
  • Diaphragm ultrasound in weaning from mechanical ventilation: a last step to predict successful extubation?
    Domenica Di Costanzo, Mariano Mazza, Antonio Esquinas
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(4): 681.     CrossRef
  • Sonographic assessment of diaphragmatic thickening and excursion as predictors of weaning success in the intensive care unit: A prospective observational study
    Amandeep Kaur, Shruti Sharma, VikramP Singh, MRavi Krishna, ParshotamL Gautam, Gagandeep Singh
    Indian Journal of Anaesthesia.2022; 66(11): 776.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of assessment of diaphragm function using speckle tracking between patients with successful and failed weaning: a multicentre, observational, pilot study
    Qiancheng Xu, Xiao Yang, Yan Qian, Chang Hu, Weihua Lu, Shuhan Cai, Bo Hu, Jianguo Li
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ultrasonographic assessment of diaphragmatic function in preterm infants on non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA) compared to nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV): a prospective observational study
    Mohamed Elkhouli, Liran Tamir-Hostovsky, Jenna Ibrahim, Nehad Nasef, Adel Mohamed
    European Journal of Pediatrics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pulmonary
The feasibility and safety of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy without endotracheal guidance in the intensive care unit
Ji Eun Kim, Dong Hyun Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):101-107.   Published online February 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00906
  • 1,817 View
  • 142 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is a common procedure in intensive care units (ICUs). Although it is thought to be safe and easily performed at the bedside, PDT usually requires endotracheal guidance, such as bronchoscopy. Here, we assessed the clinical outcomes and safety of PDT conducted without endotracheal guidance.
Methods
In the ICU and coronary ICU at a tertiary hospital, PDT was routinely performed without endotracheal guidance by a single medical intensivist using the Griggs technique PDT kit (Portex Percutaneous Tracheostomy Kit). We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent PDT without endotracheal guidance.
Results
From January 1 to December 31, 2018, 78 patients underwent PDT without endotracheal guidance in the ICU and coronary ICU. The mean age of these subjects was 71.9±11.5 years, and 29 (37.2%) were female. The mean Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score at 24 hours after admission was 25.9±5.8. Fifty patients (64.1%) were on mechanical ventilation during PDT. Failure of the initial PDT attempt occurred in 4 patients (5.1%). In two of them, PDT was aborted and converted to surgical tracheostomy; in the other two patients, PDT was reattempted after endotracheal reintubation, with success. Minor bleeding at the tracheostomy site requiring gauze changes was observed in five patients (6.4%). There were no airway problems requiring therapeutic interventions or procedure-related sequelae.
Conclusions
PDT without endotracheal guidance can be considered safe and feasible.
Infection
Serum lactate levels in cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis patients with septic shock
Surat Tongyoo, Kamonlawat Sutthipool, Tanuwong Viarasilpa, Chairat Permpikul
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):108-117.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00332
  • 2,489 View
  • 204 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
In septic shock patients with cirrhosis, impaired liver function might decrease lactate elimination and produce a higher lactate level. This study investigated differences in initial lactate, lactate clearance, and lactate utility between cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic septic shock patients.
Methods
This is a retrospective cohort study conducted at a referral, university-affiliated medical center. We enrolled adults admitted during 2012–2018 who satisfied the septic shock diagnostic criteria of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign: 2012. Patients previously diagnosed with cirrhosis by an imaging modality were classified into the cirrhosis group. The initial lactate levels and levels 6 hours after resuscitation were measured and used to calculate lactate clearance. We compared initial lactate, lactate at 6 hours, and lactate clearance between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.
Results
Overall 777 patients were enrolled, of whom 91 had previously been diagnosed with cirrhosis. Initial lactate and lactate at 6 hours were both significantly higher in cirrhosis patients, but there was no difference between the groups in lactate clearance. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for predictors of in-hospital mortality revealed cut-off values for initial lactate, lactate at 6 hours, and lactate clearance of >4 mmol/L, >2 mmol/L, and <10%, respectively, among non-cirrhosis patients. Among patients with cirrhosis, the cut-off values predicting in-hospital mortality were >5 mmol/L, >5 mmol/L, and <20%, respectively. Neither lactate level nor lactate clearance was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality among cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic septic shock patients.
Conclusions
The initial lactate level and lactate at 6 hours were significantly higher in cirrhosis patients than in non-cirrhosis patients.
Editorial
Policy/Pulmonary
The effect of socioeconomic status, insurance status, and insurance coverage benefits on mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit
Moo Suk Park
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):118-119.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00129
  • 925 View
  • 114 Download
  • 1 Citations
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-term recovery after critical illness in older adults
    Ramya Kaushik, Lauren E. Ferrante
    Current Opinion in Critical Care.2022; 28(5): 572.     CrossRef
Case Report
Pulmonary
Successful noninvasive ventilation in a severely acidotic and hypercapnic comatose COVID-19 patient with multiple comorbidities: a case report
Joseph Abraham Poonuraparampil, Habib Md Reazaul Karim, Manu P Kesavankutty, Porika Prashanth Nayak
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):120-123.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00983
  • 2,478 View
  • 167 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Effective use of noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well-known. However, noninvasive ventilation in patients presenting with altered sensorium and severe acidosis (pH <7.1) has been rarely described. Invasive mechanical ventilation is associated with high mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and use of noninvasive ventilation over invasive ventilation is an area of investigation. We report a case of COVID-19-induced acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a 66-year-old male. His past medical history included obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, cor pulmonale, atrial fibrillation, and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism. On presentation, he had acute hypercapnic respiratory failure, severe acidosis (partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PCO2], 147 mm Hg; pH, 7.06), and altered mentation. The patient was successfully managed with noninvasive ventilation, avoiding endotracheal intubation, invasive ventilation, and related complications. Although precarious, a trial of noninvasive ventilation can be considered in COVID-19-induced acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with hypercapnic respiratory failure, severe acidosis, and altered mentation.

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ACC : Acute and Critical Care