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Volume 25 (4); December 2010
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Review
Current Insights into Sepsis Treatments
Chang Youl Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):207-211.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.207
  • 2,152 View
  • 35 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sepsis is a common illness of intensive care unit patients that carries high morbidity and mortality, and increases hospital costs. Although mortality from sepsis remains high when compared with other critical illnesses, it has declined over the last few decades due to several adjunctive therapies and focused care programs or guidelines. In 2004, an international guideline was published that the bedside clinician could use to improve the outcomes in severe cases of sepsis and septic shock. Several landmark studies recently demonstrated that therapeutic strategies may substantially reduce mortality. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2008 was updated using a new evidence-based methodology system for assessing the quality of evidence and the strengths of recommendations. Evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the first step toward improving the outcomes of critically ill patients. This article discusses the guidelines and current insights into sepsis treatment.

Citations

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  • Association of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subset with the Severity and Prognosis of Septic Shock
    Jin Kyeong Park, Sang-Bum Hong, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Jin Won Huh
    The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2011; 26(1): 13.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Outcome after Admission to Intensive Care Unit Following Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Comparison between Cardiac Etiology and Non-Cardiac Etiology
Hwan Seok Kang, Hun Jae Lee, Jae Hwa Cho, Jin Hui Paik, Ji Hye Kim, Jun Sig Kim, Seung Baik Han
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):212-218.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.212
  • 2,665 View
  • 22 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To evaluate the post-resuscitation intensive care unit outcome of patients who initially survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
METHODS
We retrospectively analyzed patients who were admitted to the ICU after OHCA in a tertiary hospital between January, 2005 and December, 2009. We compared the patients' clinical data, the factors associated with admission and the prognosis of patients in cardiac and non-cardiac groups.
RESULTS
Sixty-four patients were included in this study. Thirty-four patients were in the cardiac group and thirty patients were in the non-cardiac group. The mean age was 57.3 +/- 15.1 years of age in the cardiac group and 61.9 +/- 15.7 years of age in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.235). The collapse-to-start of the CPR interval was 5.9 +/- 3.8 min in the cardiac group and 6.0 +/- 3.2 min in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.851). The complaint of chest pain occurred in 12 patients (35.3%) in the cardiac group and 1 patient (3.3%) in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.011). The time duration for making a decision for admission was 285.2 +/- 202.2 min in the cardiac group and 327.7 +/- 264.1 min in the non-cardiac group (p = 0.471). The regional wall motion abnormality and ejection fraction decrease were significant in the cardiac group (p = 0.002, 0.030). Grade 5 CPC was present in 8 patients (23.5%) in the cardiac group and 14 patients (46.7%) in the non-cardiac group.
CONCLUSIONS
The key symptom that could initially differentiate the two groups was chest pain. The time duration for making an admission decision was long in both groups. The CPC score of the cardiac group was lower than that for the non-cardiac group.

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  • Management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome
    Youngjoon Kang
    Acute and Critical Care.2019; 34(3): 173.     CrossRef
Clinical Characteristics of Acute Brain Swelling in Patients Successfully Resuscitated from Non-traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest
Wonhyun Ryu, Young Joo Lee, Eun Jung Park, Yoon Seok Jung, Young Gi Min
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):219-223.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.219
  • 1,986 View
  • 25 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The number of cardiac arrest patients who are resuscitated has increased with the development of emergency medical services. Brain swelling is often found in these patients, following return of spontaneous circulation. This study identifies risk factors for brain swelling, describes it's frequency, analyzes the effect of brain swelling on neurological outcome, and compares the results with other studies.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis had been conducted on cardiac arrest patients who visited the emergency room at a university hospital during a 24 month period since 2007. Thirty-seven successfully resuscitated patients were divided into 2 groups based on computed tomography findings; these groups consisted of 14 patients with brain swelling and 23 patients without brain swelling. Comparative studies were conducted on post-lab findings and several additional factors.
RESULTS
The 14 patients with brain swelling were significantly younger and showed a higher clinical performance category score than patients without brain swelling. Initial serum lactic acid levels showed good correlation with brain swelling.
CONCLUSIONS
An urgent CT should be conducted and aggressive treatment pursued when brain swelling is suspected, after consideration of various prognostic factors.

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  • Cerebral Edema After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Therapeutic Target Following Cardiac Arrest?
    Erik G. Hayman, Akil P. Patel, W. Taylor Kimberly, Kevin N. Sheth, J. Marc Simard
    Neurocritical Care.2018; 28(3): 276.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic values of gray matter to white matter ratios on early brain computed tomography in adult comatose patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac etiology
    Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Kyoung Hwan Song, Yong Hun Jung, Wook Jin Choi, Soo Hyun Kim, Chun Sung Youn, In Soo Cho, Dong Hun Lee
    Resuscitation.2015; 96: 46.     CrossRef
VAP (Ventilator-associated Pneumonia) in Patients with Pulmonary Contusion
Jong Hyun Jeong, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Hyuk Kim, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Sung Yeon Hwang, Hyuk Jun Yang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):224-229.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.224
  • 2,599 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
This study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with pulmonary contusion.
METHODS
The study was conducted at an urban teaching hospital emergency department with an annual volume of 80,000 patient visits. A retrospective analysis was conducted on thoracic injury patients admitted between Jan 2007 and Dec 2009. Among 122 patients investigated, 30 patients were excluded. Patient data included basal characteristics and information related to development of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ultimate mortality. Statistical methods included the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test. Study data were stored and processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 & SPSS 18.0 for Windows.
RESULTS
Ventilator-associated pneumonia developed in 46 patients (50%). The patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia were more likely to have a longer duration of hospitalization, longer length of ICU stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, a low initial GCS, a higher APACHE II score, and were more likely to require emergency intubation or tracheostomy. Factors associated with mortality included longer duration of hospitalization, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, low intial GCS and the need for dialysis.
CONCLUSIONS
Ventilator-associated pneumonia in the patients with pulmonary contusion was not relevant to mortality, but was relevant to longer hospitalization, length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation.
Comparison of Cervical Spine Movement by Airway Equipment during Orotracheal Intubation: A Manikin Pilot Study
Sang Hyun Lee, Hyuk Choong Choi, Hyung Goo Kang, Bo Seung Kang, Tai Ho Lim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):230-234.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.230
  • 2,203 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
In patients with limited cervical spine movement, equipment for orotracheal intubation should achieve sufficient laryngeal exposure with the least cervical spine movement. This study was designed to compare movement of the cervical spine during the orotracheal intubation with various intubating equipment.
METHODS
Twelve emergency physicians & residents with a total experience of >50 cases of endotracheal intubation in two emergency centers were assigned to perform orotracheal intubation with four different airway devices, including the Macintosh laryngoscope (ML), DCI video laryngoscope (DCI), Airway Scope (AWS) and Levitan Scope (LS), using the same manikin (Ambu(R) airway management trainer) in random sequences. Movement of the C-spine was examined by measuring the angle formed by two lines which are parallel to the anterior surface of the C2 and C7 vertebrae bodies. The angle was measured when Cormack-Lehane grade II glottis exposure was achieved during intubation.
RESULTS
Mean cervical spine movements were 37.6 +/- 9.2degrees, 32.2 +/- 14.2degrees, 32.2 +/- 6.45degrees and 17.4 +/- 10.0degrees with the ML, DCI (p = 0.347), AWS (p = 0.094), and LS (p < 0.001), respectively, compared to that of ML. Cervical spine movement by LS was 54% less than that by ML. LS produced less cervical spine movement in comparison to DCI (p = 0.013) and AWS (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
The Levitan Scope produced less movement of the cervical spine when compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope, DCI video-laryngoscope and Airway Scope during orotracheal intubation in a single airway training manikin model.
Physiologic Effect and Safety of Pumpless Extracorporeal Interventional Lung Assist in Korean Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure
Woo Hyun Cho, Kwangha Lee, Jin Won Huh, Chae Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Sang Bum Hong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):235-240.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.235
  • 2,415 View
  • 9 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Pumpless interventional lung assist (iLA) uses an extracorporeal gas exchange system without any complex blood pumping technology, and has been shown to reduce CO2 tension and permit protective lung ventilation. The feasibility and safety of iLA were demonstrated in previous studies, but there has been no experience with iLA in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the iLA device in terms of physiologic efficacy and safety in Korean patients with acute respiratory failure.
METHODS
iLA was implemented in patients with acute respiratory failure who satisfied the predefined criteria of our study. Initiation of iLA followed an algorithm for implementation, ventilator care, and monitoring. Following insertion of arterial and venous cannulas under ultrasound guidance, the physiologic and respiratory variables and incidence of adverse events were monitored.
RESULTS
iLA was implemented in 5 patients and the duration of iLA ranged from 7 hours to 171 hours. At 24 hours after implementation, the mean changes in pH, PaCO2, and PaO2/FiO2 ranged from 7.204 to 7.393, from 68.4 mm Hg to 33 mm Hg, and from 128.7 mm Hg to 165 mm Hg, respectively. During iLA therapy, one adverse event was observed, which presented with hematochezia without hemodynamic change.
CONCLUSIONS
iLA treatment produced effective removal of carbon dioxide and allowed for protective ventilation in severe respiratory failure. An iLA system can easily be installed by percutaneous cannulation, without procedural complications, and without significant adverse events necessitating discontinuation of iLA after implementation.

Citations

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  • A Case of Pumpless Extracorporeal Interventional Lung Assist for Severe Respiratory Failure - A Case Report -
    Young-Jae Cho, Ji Yeon Seo, Yu Jung Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2012; 27(2): 120.     CrossRef
  • A Case of iLA Application in a Patient with Refractory Asthma Who Is Nonresponsive to Conventional Mechanical Ventilation - A Case Report -
    Young Seok Lee, Hyejin Joo, Jae Young Moon, Jin Won Huh, Yeon-Mok Oh, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Sang-Bum Hong
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2012; 27(2): 108.     CrossRef
Case Reports
A Case of Pseudoaneurysm Developed during Intensive Treatment of Status Asthmaticus: A Case Report
Dong Kim, Jeong Hyun Shin, Dong Hyo No, Hyeong Cheol Cheong, Kyung Hwa Cho, Ki Eun Hwang, Hwi Jung Kim, Eun Taik Jeong, Hak Ryul Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):241-244.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.241
  • 2,172 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pseudoaneurysm formation in the pulmonary vasculature is a rare but fatal condition. Several etiologies have been described including trauma, complication after cardiac or other surgeries, tuberculosis, necrotizing pneumonia, congestive heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and vasculitis. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm found in a patient being treated with status asthmaticus, who developed complications of pneumonia and brain abscess secondary to sepsis.
Stress-induced Cardiomyopathy Associated with Swine Influenza Infection Which Exacerbated Underlying Emphysema: A Case Report
Sung Gook Song, June Hong Kim, Kook Jin Chun, Jun Kim, Yong Hyun Park, Jeong Su Kim, Ju Hyun Park, Dong Cheul Han, Woo Hyun Cho, Doo Soo Jeon, Yun Seong Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):245-248.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.245
  • 2,042 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) is an acute cardiac condition that causes left ventricular apical ballooning which mimicks acute coronary syndrome. The risk of in-hospital mortality with SICM is generally low (1% to 3%) and supportive care is usually sufficient for resolution. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1, S-OIV) is a recently spreading pandemic and a serious public health problem. Although most S-OIV infections have a mild, self-limited course, clinical cases resulting in fatalities and associated with variable co-morbidities remain as a serious concern in some individuals. Among such serious complications, there have been few reports of SICM caused by S-OIV infection. We herein report, for the first time in the literature, a case with fatal hemodynamic instability secondary to SICM caused by S-OIV infection with viral pneumonia.
A Case Report of Rapidly Progressive Empyema Caused by Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Case Report
Seong Joon Park, Young Chel Ahn, Soo Kyung Park, Min Jung Kim, Se Hun Kang, Hang Jea Jang, Younsuck Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):249-252.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.249
  • 2,165 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pulmonary actinomycosis is an indolent and slowly progressive infectious disease, accompanied by pleural effusion and empyema in about 50% of cases. The size of the effusion is usually small, though, and it responds to appropriate antibiotics. We report a case of rapidly progressing, severe empyema leading to respiratory failure that was caused by pulmonary actinomycosis. A 57-year-old man presented with pleuritic chest pain for 5 days. The initial plain chest radiograph and CT scan showed pleural effusion. Gross pus was observed during the thoracentesis and laboratory test of pleural effusion revealed empyema. In spite of empirical antibiotics and chest tube drainage, the empyema rapidly progressed and the patient reached respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation applied and decortication via video-assisted thoracotomy was performed. Microscopic examination of both the pleural and adjacent lung biopsy specimen revealed actinomycosis.
Anaphylaxis Induced by Intravenous Ranitidine Injection: 2 Case Reports
Ja Hyun Ku, Po Soon Kang, Choon Kyu Cho, Sung Mee Jung, Young Su Lim, Sung Hoo Kim, Sung Min Ahn, Hee Uk Kwon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):253-256.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.253
  • 2,160 View
  • 59 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Histamine type 2 (H2) receptor antagonists are widely used for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critical and postoperative care. Though ranitidine is one of the most commonly used H2 receptor antagonists, with a low incidence of adverse reactions, a few anaphylactic reactions associated with ranitidine have been reported. This report describes 2 additional cases of anaphylaxis induced by ranitidine used for stress ulcer prophylaxis.

Citations

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  • Analysis of individual case safety reports of drug-induced anaphylaxis to the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System
    Min Kyoung Cho, Mira Moon, Hyun Hwa Kim, Dong Yoon Kang, Ju-Yeun Lee, Sang-Heon Cho, Hye-Ryun Kang
    Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease.2020; 8(1): 30.     CrossRef
A Case of Severe Acute Exacerbation of Bronchial Asthma Treated with Low Minute Ventilation: A Case Report
Young Joo Han, Dong In Suh, Young Seung Lee, June Dong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):257-262.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.257
  • 2,737 View
  • 45 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a case of severe status asthmaticus in a 3-year-old boy who required mechanical ventilatory support. He initially presented with rapidly progressing respiratory distress and spontaneous air leaks. Although he was intubated and received mechanical ventilation, dynamic hyperinflation and air leaks were aggravated. We applied the volume control mode, providing sufficient tidal volume (10 ml/kg), a reduced respiratory rate (25/minute), and a prolonged expiratory time (1.8 seconds) to overcome dynamic hyperinflation. After allowing full expiration of trapped air, his over-expanded lung volumes were decreased and the air leaks resolved. He made a complete recovery without sequelae. Dynamic hyperinflation in asthmatic patients occurs from incomplete exhalation throughout narrowed airways. Controlled hypoventilation or permissive hypercapnia is an important lung-protective ventilator strategy and is beneficial in reducing dynamic hyperinflation. We suggest a controlled hypoventilation strategy with a prolonged expiratory time for patients in severe status asthmaticus with dynamic hyperinflation.
Hyperthermia Plus Tachycardia Is Predictive of Fatal Outcome in Pontine Hemorrhage: A Case Report
Dong Woong Eom, Kyoung Dong Jeon, Jung Soo Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):263-265.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.263
  • 2,514 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pontine hemorrhage is characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We report a case of pontine hemorrhage treated by extraventricular drainage (EVD) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and control of intracranial pressure (ICP) at the neuro-intensive care unit (NICU). The patient's ICP was well controlled, but hyperthermia with tachycardia developed 8 hours after admission, and the patient expired with sudden cardiac arrest. A literature review revealed that high fever (>39degrees C) developing within 24 hours after onset of hemorrhage with tachycardia (>110 beat/min) is a clinical indicator for high probability of death. Therefore, it is important that not only ICP and neurological changes but also vital signs, especially body temperature and heart rate, be monitored in pontine hemorrhage patients.

Citations

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  • Korean Medical Treatment for Prolonged Central Hyperthermia Following Pontine Hemorrhage: A Case Report
    Chan-sol Yi, Song-won Park, Seungcheol Hong, Youngji Kim, Juyeon Song, Jeong-yun Lee, Gil-cho Shin, Dong-jun Choi
    The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine.2018; 39(5): 1061.     CrossRef
Ipsilateral Reexpansion Pulmonary Edema Developed after Decortication: A Case Report
Kyoung Hun Kim, Mi Rang Bang, Myong Su Chon, Jae Hang Shim, Woo Jae Jeon, Sang Yoon Cho, Woo Jong Shin, Jong Hoon Yeom
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):266-270.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.266
  • 2,085 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Reexpansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is a rare but sometimes fatal complication of the treatment of lung collapse secondary to pneumothorax, pleural effusion, or atelectasis. We experienced a case of RPE that developed following decortication. A 46 year-old female had a decortication for pyothorax under one-lung anesthesia. There was no event during the operation and results of arterial blood gas analysis were within normal limits. After the operation, tracheal extubation was performed and 100% oxygen saturation on a pulse oximeter (SpO2) was maintained with 100% O2, (8 L/min) via mask ventilation with self-respiration. The patient, with 50% Venturi mask, was transported to the intensive care unit (ICU). On arrival at the ICU, a SpO2 of 80% was detected and arterial blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia with acute hypercapnic respiratory acidosis. Fortunately, reexpansion pulmonary edema was detected early and intensive treatment was performed using mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure. Tracheal extubation was performed after 1 day of mechanical ventilation. The reexpansion pulmonary edema was successfully treated and the patient recovered without any complications.
Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Subsequently Developed after Recovery from Severe Acute Lung Injury Caused by H1N1 Influenza Infection: A Case Report
Kyung Ah Lim, Ye Rym Lee, Soo Yeon Cho, Du Hwan Choe, Jae Soo Koh, Byoung Jun Lee, Hye Ryoun Kim, Cheol Hyeon Kim, Jae Cheol Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):271-275.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2010.25.4.271
  • 2,095 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Severe acute lung injury (ALI), leading to respiratory failure caused by H1N1 infection, developed in a 34-year-old man during a work-up for non-small cell lung cancer. Although he fully recovered through instant treatment with oseltamivir, mechanical ventilation was required again, 7 days later, due to subsequent diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH). Finally, his condition improved and he was able to move out of the intensive care unit. However, multiple pulmonary metastatic nodules appeared over a period of one month, suggesting the aggressive nature of lung cancer. Although he was discharged after chemotherapy, his prognosis seemed poor, considering the rapidity of growth of the lung cancer. It is important to recognize that DAH can occur after acute lung injury caused by influenza virus.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care