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Volume 19 (2); December 2004
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Review
Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide
Dong Gun Lim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):81-85.
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  • 43 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
Hemodynamic Comparison between Bupivacaine and Levobupivacaine Induced Cardiovascular Collapses in Anesthetized Dogs
Chul Woo Jung, Jin Tae Kim, Yun Suk Choe, Seng Sim Bae, Jie Ae Kim, Hyun Sung Cho, Kook Hyon Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):86-97.
  • 1,227 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Levobupivacaine is known to be less cardiotoxic than racemic bupivacaine but some authors have reported there were no differences in cardiotoxic profiles between two agents. We will investigate the full course to cardiovascular collapse induced by bupivacaine stereoisomers in anesthetized dogs and would find out the differences if any, and explain the causative factors. METHODS: Twenty dogs were assigned to two groups, racemic bupivacaine group (BUP) and levobupivacaine group (LBUP), equally (n=10, each). Under general anesthesia each drug was infused continuously (0.5 mg/kg/min) until cardiovascuar collapse (CVC, MAP=40 mmHg) occurred. During the experiment, hemodynamic data, CO, SVR, PVR, ECG parameters and drug concen tration were gathered and analyzed. RESULTS: Two groups were not different in terms of dose for CVC, plasma drug concentration and time for CVC. MAP maintained initial values during the early period and declined during the late period without any between-group difference. Otherwise CO decreased continuously and significantly higher in LBUP than in BUP throughout. Calculated SVR showed the same feature as CO in opposite direction and was higher in BUP. Correlation test revealed high correlation between CONC and SVR or PVR and between CO and cSvO2. CONCLUSIONS: In assessment of cardiovascular collapse induced by stereoisomers of bupivacaine, monitoring with only MAP can lead to misinterpretation and invasive monitoring including CO or cSvO2 measurement might be needed.
The Effect of Blood Transfusion on the Tissue Perfusion and Lung Injury during Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Sung Jin Hong, Se Ho Moon, Choon Ho Sung, Hae Jin Lee, Jin Hwan Choi, Ji Young Lee, Yong Suk Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):98-105.
  • 1,435 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The blood components of priming solution for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may have opposite roles for tissue perfusion, which are the activation of inflammatory reaction and the improvement of oxygen carrying capacity. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion of priming solution on inflammatory response and tissue perfusion. METHODS: Twenty mongrel dogs randomly allocated and received hypothermic CPB with blood- containing (H group, n=10), or non-hemic (NH group, n=10) priming solution. Gastric intramucosal CO2 concentration (PrCO2), intramucosal pH (pHi), interleukin-8 (IL-8), blood gas and hemodynamic parameters were measured at 1) before CPB, 2) 1 hour during CPB, 3) the end of CPB, 4) 2 hours after CPB, 5) 4 hours after CPB. The ratio of wet to dried lung weight was measured. Statistical verification was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and unpaired t-test.
RESULTS
PrCO2 increased and pHi decreased during the study without significant difference between the groups. IL-8 increased in both groups and IL-8 of H group increased higher than that of NH group during the study. The difference between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 of NH group was higher than that of H group at 4 hours after CPB. The ratio of wet to dried lung weight was not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the allogenic blood in priming solution aggravates the CPB- induced inflammatory reaction, however, the CPB-induced impairment of gastric mucosal perfusion and the pulmonary edema are not significantly affected, compared to non-hemic solution.
The Effect of Sevoflurane and Propofol on Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Endotoxemic Rats
Cheul Hong Kim, Joo Hyeuk Park, Seung Hoon Baek, Seong Wan Baik
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):106-114.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is a well-known phenomenon that alveolar and peritoneal macrophages exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce a large output of nitric oxide (NO) and an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. The purpose of this study is actually how much NO production and iNOS mRAN expression are effected by anesthetics (sevoflurane and propofol) on endotoxemic rats.
METHODS
To examine the production of NO in peritoneal macrophages, NO concentration were measured from the rats following 2 hours exposure to LPS and 2 hours administration of sevoflurane and propofol, respectively. Culture supernatants were collected 24 hours after exposure to LPS and anesthetics and assayed by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) for production of NO. The iNOS mRNA expression was measured using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques and autoradiography. RESULTS: In the control group, the NO concentration was measured at 2 hours after infusion of LPS to rats, and showed 12 4micrometer. After insufflations of anesthetics to experimental animals, NO concentration increased in the sevoflurane and propofol groups, 37 13 (p<0.05) and 29 12micrometer (p<0.05) respectively. The size and brightness of the iNOS mRAN bands were distinct in sevoflurane and propofol in order.
CONCLUSIONS
There were no different in regard of NO production and hemodynamic changes but iNOS mRNA expression between sevoflurane and propofol group in endotoxemic rats. The mechanism is not clear, but it is related to the strong stimulating effects on the respiratory tract of inhalation anesthetics.
Hemodynamic Changes during Isolated Liver Hemoperfusion of Hepatoma
Seong Jo Ha, Yoon Jin Hwang, Dong Gun Lim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):115-120.
  • 1,201 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To analyze hemodynamic changes during single catheter technique of hepatic venous isolation and extracorporeal charcoal hemoperfusion for malignant liver tumor. METHODS: Drugs for chemotherapy were infused to the liver through hepatic artery. With 4-lumen- 2-balloon (4L-2B) catheter, hepatic venous blood was circulated to the extracorporeal charcoal system. During extracorporeal charcoal system circulation, drugs were eliminated and the blood was reinfused to supra-hepatic vein-IVC. At the same time, IVC was clamped. Systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and arterial blood gas were measured after 4L-2B catheter insertion (T1), during test circulation (T2), after 20min chemotherapy (T3) and after 10min reperfusion (T4). RESULTS: MAP was decreased at T3 compared to T1 and increased at T4 compared to T3. CI was decreased at T3 and increased at T4 compared to T1. SVRI was decreased at T4 compared to T1. HR was increased at T2 and T3 compared to T1. SVI was decreased at T2 and T3 compared to T1. CONCLUSIONS: During clamping of IVC, MAP is decreased by decreased SVI in spite of increased HR. After IVC is released and the stagnated blood of lower extremity is recirculated, the MAP is returned to the value of after catheter insertion by increased SVI in spite of decreased SVRI.
Admission Hyperglycemia Aggravates the Prognosis of Critically Ill Patients
Jong Seok Lee, Chul Ho Chang, Yon Hee Shim, Dong Woo Han, Chang Seok Kim, Cheung Soo Shin
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):121-125.
  • 1,358 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Hyperglycemia is a common disease in critically ill patients, even those without diabetes. It has been recognized acute increase of blood glucose level would increase mortality in patients with and without diabetes in vascular disease such as acute myocardial infarct or acute stroke. However, there is not much data about hyperglycemic effects on the prognosis of patients with heterogenous disease in general intensive care unit (ICU). Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of admission hyperglycemia on prognosis of critically ill patients with heterogenous disease. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 712 patients admitted general ICU from July, 2000 to March, 2002 in teaching hospital. The patients who were not checked blood glucose level at ICU admission were excluded. We regarded diabetes patients who have been diagnosed diabetes before ICU admission. Hyperglycemia was defined as a fasting glucose level above 140 mg/dl or random glucose level above 200 mg/dl on 2 or more determinations. We measured hospital mortality, ICU stay, and hospital stay as well as blood glucose level. RESULT: Patients mortalities of diabetic hypergylcemia, nondiabetic hyperglycemia, diabetic normoglycemia, and nondiabetic normoglycemia were 17%, 19%, 26% and 10% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of diabetic patients regardless of hyperglycemia at admission time and nondiabetic hyperglycemia patients were higher than nondiabetic normoglycemia patients in ICU.
Comparison of Ventilations with LMA and Endotracheal Tube during Closed Circuit Anesthesia
Il Woo Shin, Kyeong Eon Park, Hee Dong Chung, Ju Tae Sohn, Heon Keun Lee, Young Kyun Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):126-129.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
LMA has larger dead-space than tracheal tube, ventilation may be influenced by difference of dead space. Closed circuit mechanical ventilation has high risk of hypercarbia because of inadequate CO2 elimination or gas supply. Thus, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (EtCO2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) were compared during closed circuit mechanical ventilation with LMA or tracheal tube. METHODS: Thirty adult patients scheduled for general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups. After induction of general anesthesia, laryngeal mask airway (Group 1, n=15) or tracheal tube (Group 2, n=15) were randomly inserted and closed circuit mechanical ventilation was initiated. When steady state had been reached, PaCO2 and EtCO2 were recorded. RESULTS: The PaCO2 was 32.2+/-2.8 (Group 1), 31.5+/-2.2 (Group 2) and the EtCO2 was 33.0+/-2.9, 31.6+/-2.4 respectively and there was no statistical significance between groups. The difference of arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension in each group was -0.8+/-2.6, -0.03+/-2.2 respectively and there was no statistical significance between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that in patients who are mechanically ventilated via the closed circuit system, EtCO2, PaCO2, and the difference between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension were not significantly different between groups.
Case Reports
Acute Respiratory Arrest and Brain Sequale Ocurred after General Anesthesia in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Patient: A Case Report
Tae Hun An, Tae Hyeong Kim, Byung Sik Yu
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):130-133.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The incidence of autonomic neuropathy is high in diabetic patients. Cardiovascular complications including sudden cardiorespiratory arrest, bradycardia, hypotension can occur in diabetic patients complicated with autonomic neuropathy. The causes of sudden deaths in diabetics may not always be due to silent myocardial infarction but may also be due to autonomic neuropathy. Patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy are less able to withstand hypoxia compare to normal people due to sympathetic nerve system damage. We present a case of acute respiratory arrest that occured in a 38 years old diabetic autonomic neuropathy patient after general anesthesia. Even though the patient was carried rapid and adequate airway management within 5 minutes, the patient had severe brain sequale. We conclude that the diabetic autonomic neuropathy patients require more careful monitoring and management for the hypoxia and cardiovascular status because they are more sensitive in hypoxia.
Aortic Dissection Presenting as Lower Leg Ischemia: A Case Report
Young Shin Bae, Yeon Woo Kim, Young Gi Min, Young Ju Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):134-138.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a 47-year-old man who presented with acute right leg pain without any other symptoms on visit to ER. But he had the severe back pain when the leg pain developed. Contrast CT revealed no enhancement on right common iliac artery and aortic dissection from the lower level of right renal artery to the iliac artery bifurcation. Angiographic stent insertion was performed immediately, but the patient showed reperfusion syndrome and died after 3 days. Aortic dissection with the isolated peripheral vascular complications is rare. Aortic dissection should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute lower leg ischemia like peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of the Lung Presenting as Hemoptysis in 49-year-old Woman: A Case Report
Jae Il Kim, Bum Jin Oh, Moon Hee Song, Jae Pil Yun, Sung Hye Kim, Kyung Hyun Do, Younsuck Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):139-142.
  • 1,317 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare congenital disorder of pulmonary development that usually presenting as a respiratory distress in the neonatal period. Presentation in adulthood is rare and only 40 cases of CCAM in adulthood have been reported in literatures. A 49-year-old woman presented with hemoptysis. Postero anterior chest radiograph showed an air-fluid level in right upper lobe. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest showed multilocular thick-walled cystic lesions in right upper lobe. A CT angiography showed cystic lesions with normal bronchial artery supply in right upper lobe, which were consistent with CCAM. A complete surgical resection of the right upper lobe was performed confirming a type 2 CCAM according to the expanded Stocker's classification.
Labor Analgesia with Epidural Blockade in Parturient with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report
Tae Ha Ryu, Jae Hoon Jeong, Dong Gun Lim, Si Oh Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2004;19(2):143-147.
  • 1,430 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an unusual and uncommon causes of antepartum and postpartum heart failure, which may result in severe cardiac failure and death. PPCM is often unrecognized as symptoms of normal pregnancy commonly mimic those of mild heart failure but can rapidly progress to cardiac failure. We presented a case of elective labor induction in a patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy. A epidural analgesia technique was performed without difficulty for labor analgesia in parturient with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Her post-delivery course was uncomplicated but her baby has died due to respiratory failure. We suggest that vaginal delivery with careful incremental epidural alnalgesia in patient with PPCM is acceptable methods and close peripartum monitoring is essential in the management of PPCM.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care