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Volume 18 (1); July 2003
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Reviews
Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Sung Ho Yoon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):1-6.
  • 1,313 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Perioperative Pulmonary Management
Koing Bo Kwun
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):7-19.
  • 1,295 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
Predictors for Reintubation after Unplanned Endotracheal Extubation in Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit
Bon Nyeo Koo, Shin Ok Koh, Tae Dong Kwon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):20-25.
  • 1,596 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Unplanned endotracheal extubation is a potentially serious complication, as some patients may need reintubation while in very critical conditions that may increase the morbidity and mortality rates. We conducted a study to evaluate the predictors for reintubation after unplanned extubation. METHODS: Patients who presented unplanned extubation over a 35-month period in two multidisciplinary intensive care units of university affiliated hospital were included. Any replacement of an endotracheal tube within 48 hours after unplanned extubation was considered as reintubation. RESULTS: There were 62 episodes of unplanned endotracheal extubation in 56 patients (incidence rate 2.8%). Fifty seven episodes (91.9%) were deliberate self-extubation, while 5 episodes (8.1%) were accidental extubation. Reintubation was required in 42 episodes (67.7%). Only 44.4% (12/27) of the patients who presented unplanned extubation required reintubation during weaning period, while reintubation was mandatory in 85.7% (30/35) of the patients who presented unplanned extubation during full ventilatory support (P<0.001). The multiple logistic regression analysis was made to obtain a model to predict the need for reintubation as a dependent variable: ventilatory support mode (odds ratio: 12.0) was significantly associated with the need for reintubation. The model correctly classified the need of reintubation in 72.6% (45/62) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Reintubation in unplanned extubation strongly depended on the type of the mechanical ventilatory support. The probability of requiring reintubation after unplanned extubation was higher during full ventilatory support than during weaning period.
Dopamine Concentration and Hemodynamic Effects according to the Methods of Dopamine Dilution
Jin Hee Kim, Hee Pyung Park, Byung Moon Ham, Yong Lak Kim, Yoon Seok Jeon, Jung Hoon Seo
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):26-32.
  • 1,515 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Incorrect infusion of dopamine can be potentially life threatening. If the actual volume of a 100 ml intravenous bag or bottle used to mix dopamine solutions is greater than the labeled volume, overdilution of dopamine can occur, resulting in ineffective hemodynamic response. To determine the significance of dopamine overdilution induced by the excessive volume, dopamine concentration and hemodynamic effect were compared in the manually mixed dopamine and the manufactured premixed dopamine. METHODS: For 5% dextrose water (D5W) 100 ml intravenous bottle mixed with 160 mg (4 ml) of dopamine (group 1), D5W 96 ml mixed with 160 mg of dopamine (group 2), premixed dopamine with 1.6 mg/ml of concentration manufactured 2 months ago (group 3), premixed dopamine with 1.6 mg/ml of concentration manufactured 6 months ago (group 4), and D5W 100 ml intravenous bottle mixed with 160 mg (4 ml) of dopamine after removal of 4 ml dextrose water (group 5), dopamine concentration was measured by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Hemodynamic data was obtained from 10 mongrel dogs for each group at baseline (T1), 15 minutes after dopamine infusion at a rate of 3 microgram/kg/min (T2), 8 microgram/kg/min (T3), and 15 microgram/kg/min (T4).
RESULTS
Dopamine concentrations of group 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 1.51+/- 0.09, 1.60 +/- 0.10, 1.63 +/- 0.06, 1.57+/- 0.08 and 1.57+/- 0.07 mg/ml, respectively. Group 1 showed a significantly low concentration (p< 0.05). There was no significant differences in all hemodynamic data between group 1, 2, 3, and 4. In group 1, however, there was no significant increase in both mean blood pressure at T4 and mixed venous oxygen saturation at T3 compared with T1.
CONCLUSIONS
The actual volume of D5W in 100 ml intravenous bottle is greater than the labeled, and therefore can cause significant overdilution of dopamine. Premixed dopamine, however, has the same concentration and hemodynamic effects as the dopamine mixed manually but precisely.
Case Reports
Pulmonary Embolism Detected in the Postanesthesia Care Unit Following Operation of Long Bone Fracture: A Case Report
Yun Jeong Chae, Young Ju Lee, Jin Soo Kim, Han Bum Cho
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):33-38.
  • 1,232 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific during anesthesia. A 44 years old female received elective operation for right tibio-fibular fracture under spinal anesthesia. During operation, the patient received oxygen supply 5 L/min via mask with oxygen. On arrival of postanesthetic care unit, oxygen saturation of pulse oxymeter (SpO2) was 89% and with the 100% oxygen 10 L/min by mask, SpO2 went up rapidly to 100%. When the patient breathed under room air, SpO2 suddenly decreased to 80%. Chest x-ray at that time was non-contributory. Under the suspicion of pulmonary embolism, the patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU), and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment was started. LMWH was changed to regular heparin on the second day of ICU admission after conclusive diagnosis with spiral computed tomography and lung perfusion scan. The patient's oxygenation progressively improved and on the 10th day of ICU, the patient was transferred to general ward and she was discharged without any sequelae on the 23th day postoperatively.
Tracheoesophageal Fistula as a Complication after Endotracheal Intubation: A Case Report
Woong Mo Kim, Seong Wook Jeong, Sang Hyun Kwak, Sung Su Chung, Chang Young Jeong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):39-42.
  • 1,609 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Placement of endotracheal tube, even for extremely short periods, can result in injury to laryngeal and tracheal tissue. This may be clinically insignificant, but in rare cases, it could be life threatening and results in permanent disability. Especially, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a serious and challenging problem because it may contaminate the tracheobronchial tree and interfere with nutrition. This uncommon but lethal complication has been reported to be associated with certain risk factors in tracheally intubated patients, and better knowledge of these factors could reduce the incidence of post-intubation TEF. We report a case of 49-year old male patient who has acquired TEF caused by endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation.
Pulmonary Embolism Detected after Induction of the General Anesthesia: A Case Report
Sang Ho Choi, Young Mi Kim, Soo Kyung Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):43-47.
  • 1,749 View
  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pulmonary embolism is a common medical complication following major orthopedic procedures of the lower extremities and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are nonspecific and its diagnosis may be difficult. In this case, we detected the pulmonary embolism after induction of the general anesthesia for operation of tibiofibular fracture. The patient has undergone operation for hemoperitoneum 19 days ago. The nonspecific cardiopulmonary symptoms occuring from minor pulmonary embolism should be sought during the preoperative anesthetic evaluation of patients at high risk for pulmonary embolism.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care