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Andrew M. Eibl 1 Article
Trauma
The correlation between carotid artery Doppler and stroke volume during central blood volume loss and resuscitation
Isabel Kerrebijn, Sarah Atwi, Mai Elfarnawany, Andrew M. Eibl, Joseph K. Eibl, Jenna L. Taylor, Chul Ho Kim, Bruce D. Johnson, Jon-Émile S. Kenny
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(1):162-168.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01095
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Background
Using peripheral arteries to infer central hemodynamics is common among hemodynamic monitors. Doppler ultrasound of the common carotid artery has been used in this manner with conflicting results. We investigated the relationship between changing common carotid artery Doppler measures and stroke volume (SV), hypothesizing that more consecutively-averaged cardiac cycles would improve SV-carotid Doppler correlation. Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited and studied in a physiology laboratory. Carotid artery Doppler pulse was measured with a wearable, wireless ultrasound during central hypovolemia and resuscitation induced by a stepped lower body negative pressure protocol. The change in maximum velocity time integral (VTI) and corrected flow time of the carotid artery (ccFT) were compared with changing SV using repeated measures correlation. Results: In total, 73,431 cardiac cycles were compared across 27 subjects. There was a strong linear correlation between changing SV and carotid Doppler measures during simulated hemorrhage (repeated-measures linear correlation [Rrm ]=0.91 for VTI; 0.88 for ccFT). This relationship improved with larger numbers of consecutively-averaged cardiac cycles. For ccFT, beyond four consecutively-averaged cardiac cycles the correlation coefficient remained strong (i.e., Rrm of at least 0.80). For VTI, the correlation coefficient with SV was strong for any number of averaged cardiac cycles. For both ccFT and VTI, Rrm remained stable around 25 consecutively-averaged cardiac cycles. Conclusions: There was a strong linear correlation between changing SV and carotid Doppler measures during central blood volume loss. The strength of this relationship was dependent upon the number of consecutively-averaged cardiac cycles.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care