Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

ACC : Acute and Critical Care


Author index

Page Path
HOME > Issue > Author index
Abhijit Duggal 2 Articles
Risk factors associated with development of coinfection in critically Ill patients with COVID-19
Erica M. Orsini, Gretchen L. Sacha, Xiaozhen Han, Xiaofeng Wang, Abhijit Duggal, Prabalini Rajendram
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):312-321.   Published online August 29, 2022
  • 3,839 View
  • 203 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
At outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the significance of bacterial and fungal coinfections in individuals with COVID-19 was unknown. Initial reports indicated that the prevalence of coinfection in the general population was low, but there was uncertainty regarding the risk of coinfection in critically ill patients.
Nine hundred critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 infection were enrolled in this observational case-control study. Patients with a coinfection (case) and patients without a coinfection (control) were compared using univariate and multivariable analyses. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients with coinfection, dividing them into early (infection within 7 days) and late (infection after 7 days) infection groups.
Two hundred and thirty-three patients (25.9%) had a bacterial or fungal coinfection. Vasopressor use (P<0.001) and severity of illness (higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, P=0.009) were risk factors for the development of a coinfection. Patients with coinfection had higher mortality and length of stay. Vasopressor and corticosteroid use and central line and foley catheter placement were risk factors for late infection (>7 days). There were high rates of drug-resistant infections.
Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at risk for both community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections throughout their hospitalization for COVID-19. It is important to consider the development of a coinfection in clinically worsening critically ill patients with COVID-19 and consider the likelihood of drug-resistance when choosing an empiric regimen.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant bacteria in COVID-19 patients
    Abdu Aldarhami, Ahmed A. Punjabi, Abdulrahman S. Bazaid, Naif K. Binsaleh, Omar W. Althomali, Subuhi Sherwani, Omar Hafiz, Ali A. Almishaal
    Medicine.2024; 103(10): e37389.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of secondary infections and association with mortality rates of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
    Khalifa Binkhamis, Alanoud S. Alhaider, Ayah K. Sayed, Yara K. Almufleh, Ghadah A. Alarify, Norah Y. Alawlah
    Annals of Saudi Medicine.2023; 43(4): 243.     CrossRef
  • Blood Stream Infections in COVID-19 Patients From a Tertiary Care Center in Lebanon: Causative Pathogens and Rates of Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms
    Sarah B. Nahhal, Johnny Zakhour, Abdel Hadi Shmoury, Tedy Sawma, Sara F. Haddad, Tamara Abdallah, Nada Kara Zahreddine, Joseph Tannous, Nisrine Haddad, Nesrine Rizk, Souha S. Kanj
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes.2023; 7(6): 556.     CrossRef
Atrial fibrillation of new onset during acute illness: prevalence of, and risk factors for, persistence after hospital discharge
Abarna Ramanathan, John Paul Pearl, Manshi Li, Xiaofeng Wang, Divyajot Sadana, Abhijit Duggal
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):317-321.   Published online November 29, 2021
  • 4,218 View
  • 125 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Atrial fibrillation of new onset during acute illness (AFNOAI) has a variable incidence of 1%–44% in hospitalized patients. This study assesses the risk factors for persistence of AFNOAI in the 5 years post hospital discharge for critically ill patients.
This was a retrospective cohort study. All patients ≥18 years old admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care hospital from January 1st, 2012, to October 31st, 2015, were screened. Those designated with atrial fibrillation (AF) for the first time during the hospital admission were included. Risk factors for persistent AFNOAI were assessed using a Cox’s proportional hazards model.
Two-hundred and fifty-one (1.8%) of 13,983 unique MICU admissions had AFNOAI. After exclusions, 108 patients remained. Forty-one patients (38%) had persistence of AFNOAI. Age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.08), hyperlipidemia (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.02–5.05) and immunosuppression (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.02–5.16) were associated with AFNOAI persistence. Diastolic dysfunction (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 0.71–3.00) and mitral regurgitation (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 0.91–4.37) also showed a trend towards association with AFNOAI persistence.
Our study showed that AFNOAI has a high rate of persistence after discharge and that certain comorbid and cardiac factors may increase the risk of persistence. Anticoagulation should be considered, based on a patient’s individual AFNOAI persistence risk.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care